Gertrude Claus Collection of Goodall-Sanford, Inc., Photographs

Collection Number: 6664 P

Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library


DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY

Title:
Gertrude Claus Collection of Goodall-Sanford, Inc., Photographs, 1952
Collection Number:
6664 P
Creator:
Gertrude Claus;
Goodall-Sanford, Inc.
Quantity:
0.5 linear ft.
Forms of Material:
Gelatin silver print, photographs.
Repository:
Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
Abstract:
Photographs documenting the production of wool cloth.
Language:
Collection material in English


ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY

The Goodall Woolen Mills were founded in Sanford, Maine, by Thomas Goodall in 1867. Some of the plant's early production included railroad car upholstery, carpets, draperies, auto fabrics, and clothing fabric under the name "Palm Beach." The mills underwent a modernization phase in 1910. The Goodal family ran the company until it was sold to the Burlington Mills Corporation in 1953. In 1955 Burlington closed the mills.

COLLECTION DESCRIPTION

Photographs show spinning machines, gilling machines the worsted yarn preparation is shown at different stages of the process at the Goodall-Sanford Mills in Sanford, Maine. Also includes photographs from the U.S. Department of Agriculture documenting wool processing.
SUBJECTS

Names:
Arlington Mills.
Birch Brothers, Inc.
Goodall-Sanford, Inc. (Sanford, Me.)
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Subjects:
Carding
Drying apparatus
Dyes and dyeing
Engraving
Women employees
Male employees
Looms
Spinning machinery
Textile factories
Textile printing
Measuring the performance of textiles--textile testing
Textile workers
Textile machinery
Weaving
Winding machines
Women textile workers
Wool
Wool scouring
Wool-carding
Wool-combing
Woolen and worsted drawing
Woolen and worsted finishing
Woolen and worsted machinery
Woolen and worsted manufacture
Woolen and worsted spinning

Geographic Subjects:
Reweaving

Form and Genre Terms:
Gelatin silver print
Photographs


INFORMATION FOR USERS

Access Restrictions:
Access to the collections in the Kheel Center is restricted. Please contact a reference archivist for access to these materials.
Restrictions on Use:
This collection must be used in keeping with the Kheel Center Information Sheet and Procedures for Document Use.
Cite As:
Gertrude Claus Collection of Goodall-Sanford, Inc., Photographs #6664 P. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library.

CONTAINER LIST

Container
Description
Date
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts an aerial view of the Goodall-Sanford, Inc., plant in Sanford, Me. Plant is in foreground, consisting of several multi-story buildings. Residential houses spread out behind plant, with open area in background and mountains visible in distant background. 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts an older man sorting wool. A large bag of wool is on the floor near him, with open wooden bins of wool behind him. Text: "Sorting. The shorn fleece from a sheep (wool) and the fleece from the Angora goat (mohair) contain sections of coarse, medium, and fine fibers. Skilled tradesmen, known as "sorters," separate these sections by hand into various sorts." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts large piles of wool on a warehouse floor. Large windows in the rear give light. Text: "Blended Sorts. After sorting, the same grades from each sorter are carefully blended and spread over a large floor area to make a uniform blend. These various lots are carefully placed in layers to obtain uniform quality within each lot. Thus, when the wool or mohair is started through the processing, any variances in the judgment of the sorters will be equalized and a uniform yarn will result." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts large piles of wool being put through a scouring machine. Text: "Scouring. The operation of scouring is to remove foreign matter from the raw wool and mohair. The fibers are passed through various scouring bowls containing soaps and chemicals; squeezed between rolls by hydraulic pressure; and finally run through a continuous dryer and deposited in large trucks ready to be taken to the next operation." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts wool carding machines in operation. There is a large bin of wool in the foreground. Text: "Carding. The scoured wool or mohair is placed into hoppers from which predetermined amounts are passed through a series of wire-covered cylinders. These cylinders turn at high speed in opposite directions, thereby straightening and paralleling the fibers so that they can be formed into a thin web. This web, condensed, results in a heavy sliver of parallel fibers." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 26.5 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts the combing process of wool slivers. Note the pile of finished coils on the left. Text: "Combing. This process removes shorter fibers below a desired length for worsted processing. It combs the longer fibers which are retained and arranges them in parallel order. During this combing operation, neps and other impurities, which have not been previously removed, are also taken out with the shorter fibers. The short fibers, called noils, are the basis for blends in woolen yarn production." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 26.5 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts combed slivers being processed through a gill box. Text: "Finished Gilling. A number of combed slivers are processed through the gill box which further parallels the fiber mass by means of drafting rolls and fallers. These fallers consist of a number of tapered pins which move at a faster surface speed, thus performing a combing action." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts combed slivers being reduced to a fine roving through the process of drawing. Text: "Drawing (Mix Gill). After combing and top making, it is necessary to further blend the various fiber components and to reduce the heavy sliver down to a relatively fine roving which can be used on the spinning frame. Here we have an overall view of some of the drawing operations. The first operation is the Mix Gill. Here we see a number of tops blended and drafted through fallers to further blend and parallel the fibers." 25 x 19.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 19.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts the process of drawing the blended slivers onto spools as slubbing. Text: "Drawing (Two Spindle Gill Box). Thoroughly blended and mixed slivers are run together, drafted and wrapped onto large spools as slubbing. From this point all slubbing will be reduced in size, twist inserted and wrapped onto spools." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 1 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a row of drawing frames. Text: "Drawing Operations. A general view showing the frames and manner in which the stock is drawn down to size and wrapped onto spools." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 21 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a six spindle weigh box that is further reducing the product as part of the drawing operation. Text: "Drawing (Six Spindle Weigh Box). The product coming from the two-spindle gill box is further reduced in size on this machine." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts an eight-spindle reducer that further reduces the product as part of the drawing operation. Only six spindles can be seen in this photo, with the seventh partially visible on the right. Text: "Drawing (Eight Spindle Reducer). The product taken off the six-spindle weigh box is again reduced in size on this eight- spindle reducer." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a twelve spindle finisher, the final operation in drawing. Text: "Drawing (Twelve Spindle Finisher). This is the final operation in heavy drawing. Its product will be supplied to the Roving Frame (Rover)." See item 4 in this folder. 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts roving frames. The frame in the right foreground was manufactured by Prince Smith & Son of Keighley, England. Text: "Rover. These frames produce the roving by finally drafting the product of the 12-spindle finisher to the size required for the spinning operation." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a large room of spinning frames. Text: "Ring Spinning. The spools at the top of the frames contain what is known as roving. This roving is reduced in size through a set of rolls and wound onto bobbins revolving at high speed. In the operation of spinning, the amount of twist is controlled to give the resultant product the desired characteristics; namely, loftiness, strength, smoothness, resiliency, etc." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male textile worker standing next to a ring spinning frame. Text: "Ring Spinning. This shows a close-up view of the ring spinning frame. On the top of the machine the roving will be seen as it passes through a series of rolls driven at varying speeds." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a line of cap spinning frames. Cap spinning is a different process from ring spinning and is used more often for spinning worsted yarns. Text: "Cap Spinning. Yarn produced by this process is spun with the aid of metal caps which differ from the rings. This process produces yarn of a different character which may be desired in certain fabrics." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts an automatic winder. Text: "Automatic Winder. Bobbins of yarn taken from the spinning frame are usually of relatively small size. In order to increase the efficiency of the subsequent operation, these bobbins are wound on larger packages. The winder automatically feeds bobbins into the machine as the yarn runs out and ties the yarn to the larger package. All the operator has to do is remove the large package from the machine, which is then ready for the next operation." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts twisting machines. Text: "Twisting. For certain fabrics two-ply yarns are required. Therefore, single yarns, as they come from the spinning frame, have to be plied and twisted. In this twisting operation two ends of single yarn are combined, twisted, and wound onto bobbins." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 2 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts winders. Yarn from the smaller bobbins is wound into larger packages, seen at the top of the machines. Text: "Ply Winding. The two-ply yarns, as received from the twister, are wound onto large packages in order to increase the efficiency of subsequent operations." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a room of winding machines. Note the row of bins placed beneath the machines to receive the filled bobbins. Text: "Filling Winding. In order to prepare filling yarn for weaving, it has to be wound on quills or filling bobbins. The yarn is wound from large packages onto wooden quills in such a manner that all of them are of the same diameter so that they will fit into the shuttle. This winder performs the operation automatically, that is, as a bobbin is filled it drops into a container placed under the machine. An empty bobbin is then automatically placed onto the winding mechanism, and the winder again starts operating." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a room where female employees inspect the yarn for defects before it is wound onto spools. Each woman sits in front of a spooler inspecting numerous yarns as they pass over an inspection board in front of her. Text: "Jackspooling. Large yarn packages are placed in a creel behind each spooler. These individual yarns are pased over an inspection board to be observed for yarn defects. The yarns are ultimately wound on jack-spools at the bottom of the frame." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts the process of section beaming. Ten jackspools are combined to make one section beam. Note the size of the jackspools at the rear of the machine in contrast to the size of the beam being created at the front. Text: "Section Beaming. Usually 10 jackspools are combined to make one section beam of 400 ends. The yarns are run over lease rods and through a comb to get them straight on the section beam." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male employee standing by a slasher, a machine that applies a sizing mixture to warp yarns. The sized and dried yarns are being wound onto a loom beam in the foreground. Text: "Slashing. Depending upon the amount of warp ends required for a fabric, a number of section beams are set up on a creel behind the slasher. These yarns are then passed through a size box containing starch solution of carefully controlled temperature. After the size has been applied, the yarn is run through squeeze rolls and then passed over hot steam pipes to dry. The yarns are then passed over and under lease rods also through a comb to keep them straight for winding on a loom beam." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a female employee drawing in threads through a heddle. Text: "Drawing-In. Before a loom beam is placed into a loom, each thread must be drawn through a heddle. The heddle is a small metal rod having an eye in the center of it. These heddles are held by a frame or harness. Several harnesses are used in one weave; therefore, the operator must be exceedingly careful to draw the thread through the proper heddle. As these harnesses are lifted in the loom, the threads are raised allowing the shuttle to pass between them thus forming the required weave." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts male and female employees at work in a room full of looms. The "greige goods" referred to in the text simply mean cloth as it leaves the loom before any kind of finishing or bleaching treatment. Text: "Weaving. This process is the art of interlacing warp and filling yarns to form pieces of fabric. As these pieces of greige goods are woven, they are removed from the loom for subsequent finishing operations." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a young woman seated in front of a board on which cloth is spread, mending any flaws in the cloth,. Text: "Mending. Skilled operators must correct all yarn and weave imperfections. In some cases these yarns have to be removed and sewn in again by hand. Knots are pulled to the back of the material to obtain a fabric with a perfectly finished face." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male employee standing by a crabbing machine. The "greige goods" referred to in the text simply means cloth that has come off the loom but has not yet been bleached or finished in any way. The steam is visible, as are the rollers through which the cloth is pulled. Text: "Crabbing. This process of passing greige goods through boiling water in open width under tension sets the warp and filling threads; thereby preventing the formation of cockles, creases, or other forms of uneven shrinkage in the finished fabric." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a singeing machine. This machine appears to have been manufactured by Birch Brothers, Inc. of Somerville, Mass.; Birch Brothers manufactured textile dyeing and finishing machinery. Text: "Singeing. Fabrics as received from the loom contain fibers which protrude from top and bottom surfaces. These fibers must be removed to obtain a smooth fabric. The two methods most commonly used are passing the fabric at high speed over a hot gas flame, or over a superheated copper bar. This operation removes the protruding fibers." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 3 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts the machinery involved in the process of tint removal. Text: "Tint Removal. Yarns containing varying percentages of different fibers must be tinted for identification purposes. This fugitive tint has to be removed prior to any subsequent finishing operation. The machine shown removes this fugitive tint by passing the fabric through a number of bowls containing chemicals." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a long line of scouring machines. Text: "Continuous Scouring. In this operation miles of fabric are being washed in a continuous process to prepare for dyeing and subsequent finishing operations." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a closer view of the scouring machines and the fabric as it is reeled from one machine to another. Text: "Continuous Scouring. A close-up view of the fabric being scoured in the continuous operation." 25.5 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 21 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a printing machine where the slivers are printed, rather than finished cloth being printed,. Text: "Vigoureux Printing. For special types of color mixtures a number of slivers of top are passed through a printing machine. This machine transfers color by means of evenly spaced bars onto the top, thus creating harmonious color effects when this top is processed through subsequent operations." 25.5 x 20.25 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.25 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a room filled with dyeing kettles. Several male employees are visible, one at the controls of one of the kettles, one standing by the kettles, and one standing next to a cart loaded with fabric. Text: "Kettle Dyeing. A number of pieces of fabric are continually rotated through dye solutions within these stainless steel kettles. Dyeing is one of the most important of all finishing operations and requires specialists having chemical and technical training and experience. In order to obtain the desired shade and color fastness requirements, selection of dye-stuffs, chemicals, and temperatures must be carefully controlled and supervised." 25.5 x 21cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 21 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a close-up view of fabric as it goes through a dyeing kettle. Text: "Kettle Dyeing. Here we have a close-up of a stainless steel piece dye kettle. The pieces are laid over a stainless steel creel which revolves, thus continually changing the position of the pieces. This is necessary to get uniform dye penetration." 25.5 x 20.5cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts an overhead view of several male employees at work in the mill dye laboratory. Visible are jars of chemicals, a fan, a hot plate, and other equipment to test the dyes. Text: "Mill Dye Laboratory. This Laboratory is used primarily as a control department directly in conjunction with the Dye House to determine if production meets the rigid quality standards set up for the individual styles." 25.5 x 20.5cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a fabric dryer to properly dry wet fabrics. Text: "Fabric Dryer. Wet processed fabrics must be dried to control shrinkage lengthwise and widthwise. This machine is mechanically constructed to accomplish this purpose." 25.5 x 20.5cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts machinery used in the process of full decating fabric. Decating is a finishing process done on woolen and worsted fabrics to set the nap and develop the luster of the material. A male employee is visible behind the rolls of material. Text: "Full Decating. The fabric is put on a perforated roll under tension with a heavy cotton leader of sateen weave. This roll is placed into a cylinder which is hermetically sealed. The air is pumped out thus creating a vacuum. Then steam is injected and left on for several minutes. The roll is now allowed to cool and the fabric removed. This process sets the fabric and imparts a desiered luster." 25.5 x 20.5cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts machinery used in the process of semi decating fabric. Decating is a finishing process done on woolen and worsted fabrics to set the nap and develop the luster of the material. A male employee is partially visible on the right, somewhat hidden behind the machinery. Here the material is seen on large rollers under a hood. Text: "Semi Decating. The process is similar to that described for full decating, except that no vacuum is used. For certain types of fabric this treatment is preferred." See item 8 in this folde for a description of full decating. 25 x 20.5cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts two male employees inspecting fabric. The fabric is draped over a roller and drawn down by hand as they inspect for defects. Text: "Final Inspection. Before shipping, every yard of fabric must be carefully inspected to insure that it meets our high quality standards." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a room where new machinery has been installed to investigate different spinning methods. Text: "Yarn Development. This shows installation of Pilot Plant machinery where different spinning methods are being investigated." 25.25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a room with employees (all male) working on narrow looms, weaving sample pieces of fabric,. Text: "Product Development. Prior to full production runs, sample pieces are woven on narrow looms to insure that fabrics are correctly constructed for their respective end use." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts the main laboratory. The view, taken from a slightly high perspective, shows a room with glassed-in cubicles, one of which holds a loom. Text: "Main Laboratory. This Laboratory is divided into several sections comprising Chemical Control Laboratory, Physical Control Laboratory, Chemical Research Laboratory, Dye Laboratory, Application Laboratory, Microscopic Laboratory, Physical Research Laboratory, and Color Fastness Laboratory. Tests are performed against rigid speciications; and all fabrics must meet these specifications, depending upon their end use." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male employee at work in the chemical control laboratory. Man is wearing a white lab coat and dark pants, standing in front of a row of extractors. Text: "Chemical Control Laboratory. Here we see a bank of Soxhlet Extractors into which small samples of fiber are placed. The purpose of this test is to determine the amount of grease the intermediate products contain." See item 15 in this folder for a close-up view of these extractors. 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a close-up view of the Soxhlet Extractors seen in the prior image of the chemical control laboratory (item 14 in this folder). A male employee wearing a lab coat is behind the extractors, pouring ether into one of them. Text: "Chemical Control Laboratory. This is a close-up of these Soxhlet Extractors showing hot plates, beakers containing ether, and the Soxhlet tube through which this ether is repeatedly passed." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male employee at work in a chemical laboratory. The employee wears a long white lab coat, and is standing in front of a table with a beaker of a chemical in front of him. A row of jars (presumably containing other chemicals) is on the shelf above the table. Text: "Chemical Laboratory. This is one of the Chemical Laboratories used in testing shipments of chemicals to determine if they meet purchasing specifications. We also test new chemical products to continually improve our processes and fabrics." 25.25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 21 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts two female employees at work in the physical testing laboratory. Both employees wear white lab coats; one has her back to the camera and is involved with something against the wall; the other works on something on the table in the center of the room. The lettering on the door in the background reads "Conditioning Testing." Text: "Physical Testing Laboratory. This Laboratory has to be maintained at standard atmospheric condition, namely, 70 [degrees] F, 65% relative humidity. Because of the hygroscopic properties of fibers, humidity has an important effect on weight and strength. In order to enable us to obtain constant results, the testing room has to be air conditioned. Yarns are periodically tested for yarn size, twist and strength to maintain uniform quality standards and production requirements." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts two male employees at work in the calender coating operation at the Reading, Mass., division of Goodall-Sanford, Inc., of Sanford, Me. The Reading division handled dyeing and finishing. Calendering is a cloth finishing process, whereby a fabric is pressed between rollers. In this case, a plastic film is being applied. Text: "Calender Coating Operation, Reading Division. This operation shows a cotton fabric being passed between the rolls of a plastic calender and having a film of plastic material pressed against the face of the cotton fabric under heat and pressure to secure a proper bond." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male employee standing next to one of the printers in the plastic printing operations at the Reading, Mass., division of Goodall-Sanford, Inc., of Sanford, Me. The Reading division handled dyeing and finishing. Text: "Plastic Printing, Reading Division. This machine deposits a plastic ink, by means of an engraved roll, onto the surface of the plastic coated fabric." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 27 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 4 1952
Format: black and white photograph
Gelatin silver print. Image depicts a male employee at work at an embossing machine at the Reading, Mass., division of Goodall-Sanford, Inc., of Sanford, Me. The Reading division handled dyeing and finishing. Note the large rolls of plastic fabric standing on the left. Text: "Embossing, Reading Division. Here is shown a machine which embosses plastic fabric utilizing a steel engraved plate. The designs are usually of two classes--leather-like or simulated fabric patterns." 25 x 20.5 cm. (w/out mount); 26.5 x 20.5 cm. (w/mount).
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20397.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20398.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Desizing worsted cloth from loom: cloth moves fro right to left. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20399.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Shearing: cutting off excess lengths of fibers projecting from surface of cloth. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20400.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Worsted cording the wool, long fibers. Producing a "ball" of card sliver. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20401.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Cloth measuring and folding machine. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20402.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Open-width dryers and cloth rolls. The white cloth is the "leader" for threading the cloth to be processed through the machine. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20403.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Rope (wet) scouring of cloth. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20404.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Frame at extreme left supports jackspools of yarn. Yarns then go to the back reed where other special yarns are added, pass over two rolls, through a lease reed, through a reducing reed, then onto the sectin reel where the warp is made up. This would then be rewound onto a loom beam (on the further side of the section reel). U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20405.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Note: Traps in left mill (upper section) where friction is applied to "rope" of cloth creating the heat which along with the fulling soap results in felting action. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20406.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Feed side. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20407.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Napper raising surface fibers by action of pins. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20408.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Two yarns are wound from spinning bobbins through a tension devise and slub catcher, upward to the gathering rol, then down to the traversing yarn guide onto the tube. He two ends are wound as one. Tubes are fed to twisting where a 2-ply yarn is produced or may be fed to warper. The machine is a Foster #57 Doubler Winder. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20409.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Bobbins form spinning or twisting are placed on stationary spindles (to left of bin: see mid-machine) and yarn passes upward through a tension device and slub catcher t traversing yarn guide, then into cone which is rotated by the rum. The machine is a Folster Cone Winder. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20410.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Multiple-wound tubes are creeled behind the warper. Many ends are drawn from all the tubes to form a sheet of yans which is wound onto the warp beam. The beam may be used to feed a twister or a slasher. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20411.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
This continues the reducing of he strands. The spools from the 2-spindle Gill Box are fed into the "rover" and the strands are drafted using drafting rolls (in contrast to the pins used in gilling). Again it is wound onto double-headed wooden spools with more twist added to enable removal in the next operation. The path of the stock is downward. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20412.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Spools from the First Roverr are placed in creel at the top and fed downward to the drafting rolls, drawn down t the size needed for spinning, more twist added for strength (but not enough to interfere with drafting) and then wound onto double-headed wooden spools. The path of the stock is downward. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20413.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Feeds a gill box combination referred to as a backwasher gill. Cleans gilled sliver and oil for combing applied. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20415.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Several combed slivers are fed to gill box and combined into a sigle sliver which is then wund into a ball. This gill box produces two balls simultaneously. An additional gilling will result in "Top" (ball form) which can then be processed into yarn. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20416.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Four Gilled Slivers are wound into "punch balls" which are then placed into the Noble Comb (down low). Thes slivers are fed upward and into the feed boxes which feed the pinned "circles" (great circle (1) and small circles (20) on opposite sides of the comb. The long fibers are drawn off by verticle aprons, the strands from both sides are combined and are moved to the right and the combed sliver is coiled into a can (extreme right). U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20417.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Open gilling: six card slivers are drawn down to one. The machine is a "gill box". It produces a ball containing the six slivers. Strand blending. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20418.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
Gilled combed sliver from can gill is fed to the "2-Spindle Gillbox" which winds the drawn sliver onto a double-headed wooden bobbin. The weight per unit length has been reduced in this machine and a small amount of twist added to the strand to enable removal from the bobbin in the next operation. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20419.
Box 1 Folder 5
Format: black and white photograph
The roving is reduced to the desired size (roller drafting) and twist added to ive the desired characteristics to the yarn and wound onto a bobbin, commonly wood (without heads). This spinning frame utilizes metal caps to guide the yarn onto the bobbins. The path of the stock is dwnward. U.S.Department of Agriculture; Negative #20480.