Jay Lovestone Papers

Collection Number: 6036/028

Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library


DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY

Title:
Jay Lovestone Papers, 1929-1983
Collection Number:
6036/028
Creator:
Lovestone, Jay
Quantity:
7 linear ft.
Forms of Material:
Papers.
Repository:
Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
Abstract:
This collection contains correspondence, speeches, writings, reports, and collected material of Jay Lovestone, primarily documenting his interest and work in international labor affairs in the 1960s and 1970s.
Language:
Collection material in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, and Russian


ILGWU ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY

The International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union was once one of the largest labor unions in the United States founded in 1900 by local union delegates representing about 2,000 members in cities in the northeastern United States. It was one of the first U.S. Unions to have a membership consisting of mostly females, and it played a key role in the labor history of the 1920s and 1930s. The union is generally referred to as the "ILGWU" or the "ILG". The ILGWU grew in geographical scope, membership size, and political influence to become one of the most powerful forces in American organized labor by mid-century. Representing workers in the women's garment industry, the ILGWU worked to improve working and living conditions of its members through collective bargaining agreements, training programs, health care facilities, cooperative housing, educational opportunities, and other efforts. The ILGWU merged with the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union in 1995 to form the Union of Needle trades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE). UNITE merged with the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) in 2004 to create a new union known as UNITE HERE. The two unions that formed UNITE in 1995 represented only 250,000 workers between them, down from the ILGWU's peak membership of 450,000 in 1969.

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

Jay Lovestone was born on December 24, 1898 in Lithuania, which was then a part of Russia. His father obtained a job in a New York synagogue and Lovestone came with his family to the U.S. at the age of 9. He graduated from City College in 1918 and soon found himself involved in the Socialist and Communist movements. Lovestone became a founding member of the American Communist Party in 1919, and became editor of the Communist Party publication "The Communist" in 1921. Lovestone led the party from 1927 until his expulsion in 1929. Lovestone and his followers formed the Communist Party of the United States, later the Independent Labor League of America, but more commonly known as the "Lovestonites," which disbanded in 1940. In 1943, Lovestone was appointed the founding director of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' (ILGWU) International Affairs Department. He went on to serve as Secretary of the Free Trade Union Committee, director of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, and director of the AFL-CIO's Department of International Affairs, serving from 1963 until his retirement in 1974. Lovestone died on March 7, 1990 at the age of 91.

COLLECTION DESCRIPTION

The collection is divided into six series: Correspondence, Foreign Files, Speeches, Writings and Reports, Miscellaneous, Personal Paraphernalia, and Financial Documents. Spanning Lovestone's work as the Director of the ILGWU's International Relations Department, as well as Director of the AFL-CIO's Department of International Affairs, these papers include correspondence with individuals and organizations with considerable interest in the growth of trade unionism abroad. The Correspondence Series consists of general correspondence, files, and documents that are arranged alphabetically by either individual or organization. This series occupies the bulk of the collection. It includes correspondence to and from Lovestone, as well as clippings and articles. The individuals and organizations contained within the correspondence reflects the international nature of Lovestone's work, including material to and from Europe, Africa, and Asia, while not all of the material is in English. There is correspondence to both national and international organizations, as well as the U. S. Department of Labor and the State Department. Individuals that Lovestone communicated with include consulate generals, diplomats, labor attaches, labor leaders (both national and international), senators, and congressmen. There is substantial information from organization of which Lovestone was involved, including the AFL-CIO and The Atlantic Council of the United States (of which Lovestone was a director). Notable individuals in the collection that Lovestone communicated with include Irving Brown (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions representative to the U.N.), Harry Goldberg (Department of International Affairs at the AFL-CIOletters and reports regarding missions to various countries), Dale Good (labor attach at the United States Embassy in Germany), Fritz Heine (senior figure in the German Social Democratic Party), Lane Kirkland, George Meany, Walter Reuther, Bayard Rustin, and Philip Taft, and important ILGWU leaders such as Sol Chaikin, David Dubinsky, Roy Godson, Mark Staar, Louis Stulberg, and Charles Zimmerman.
The remaining series contain foreign files which contain reports, notes from trips to various countries regarding delegation visits, and reports that were written and compiled by individuals and sent back to Lovestone; speeches presented at conferences and meetings as well as drafts of chapters and reports; general reports, many to the Free Trade Union Committee of the Labor League for Human Rights, of which Lovestone was executive secretary, as well as "News from the AFL-CIO" and a typed copy of Theodore Draper's "The Roots of American Communism"; notes business cards and collected letters and documents; and receipts, invoices, and expense reports.
SUBJECTS

Names:
Lovestone, Jay.
Angelton, James.
Beichman, Arnold.
Brombart, David.
Bruegel, John.
Bundy, Eldridge.
Coste, Brutus.
Dan, Phan-Quang.
Dohrn, Klaus.
Dubinsky, David, -- 1892-1982.
Eivan, Amos.
Jackson, Henry M. -- (Henry Martin), -- 1912-1983.
Kethley, Anna.
Meany, George, -- 1894-
Mihajlov, Mihajlo, -- 1934-2010.
Paladino, Morris.
Reuther, Walter, -- 1907-1970.
Riesel, Victor.
Shanker, Albert.
Taft, Philip, -- 1902-1976.
Tehas, Virginia.
Thieman, Elfrieda.
Weiner, Herbert E., -- 1921-
Wittfogel, Karl.
Zimmerman, Charles S., -- 1896-1983.
AFL-CIO. -- Executive Council.
Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace.

Form and Genre Terms:
Papers


INFORMATION FOR USERS

Access Restrictions:
Access to the collections in the Kheel Center is restricted. Please contact a reference archivist for access to these materials.
Restrictions on Use:
This collection must be used in keeping with the Kheel Center Information Sheet and Procedures for Document Use.
Cite As:
Jay Lovestone Papers #6036/028. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library.

RELATED MATERIALS

Related Collections:
5780: ILGWU records
5780/014: ILGWU Local 22, Charles S. Zimmerman Papers
5780/062: ILGWU International Relations Department Records
6036/023: Jay Lovestone Interview by E. Finn
SERIES LIST

Series I. Correspondence
Series II. Foreign Files
Series III. Speaches, Writings, and Reports
Series IV. Miscellaneous
Series V. Personal Paraphenalia
Series VI. Financial Documents

CONTAINER LIST

Container
Description
Date
Box 1 Folder 1 1952-1983
Box 1 Folder 2 1961-1965
Box 1 Folder 3 1976-1983
Box 1 Folder 4 1972-1983
Box 1 Folder 5 1975
Box 1 Folder 6 1963-1967
Box 1 Folder 7 1967
Box 1 Folder 8 1967
Box 1 Folder 9 1967
Box 1 Folder 10 1968
Box 1 Folder 11 1968
Box 1 Folder 12 1969
Box 1 Folder 13 1969-1975
Box 1 Folder 14 1980-1982
Box 1 Folder 15 1975-1977
Box 1 Folder 16 1967-1982
Box 1 Folder 17 1967-1969
Box 1 Folder 18 1966-1968
Box 1 Folder 19 1968-1983
Box 1 Folder 20 1967-1968
Box 1 Folder 21 1968-1975
Box 1 Folder 22 1975-1983
Box 1 Folder 23 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 24 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 25 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 26 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 27 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 28 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 29 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 30 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 31 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 32 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 33 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 34 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 35 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 36 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 37 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 38 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 39 1949-1982
Box 1 Folder 40 1967-1977
Box 1 Folder 41 1967-1977
Box 1 Folder 42 1967-1977
Box 1 Folder 43 1967-1977
Box 1 Folder 44 1967-1977
Box 1 Folder 45 1965-1977
Box 1 Folder 45a 1965-1982
Box 1 Folder 46 1975-1982
Box 1 Folder 47 1980-1983
Box 1 Folder 48 1967-1977
Box 1 Folder 49 1981-1983
Box 1 Folder 50 1963-1983
Box 1 Folder 51 1970-1981
Box 1 Folder 52 1969-1980
Box 1 Folder 53 1972-1982
Box 1 Folder 54 1970-1971
Box 1 Folder 55 1970-1971
Box 1 Folder 56 1969-1977
Box 1 Folder 57 1969-1977
Box 1 Folder 58 1969-1977
Box 1 Folder 59 1969-1977
Box 1 Folder 60 1969-1977
Box 1 Folder 61 1946-1974
Box 1 Folder 62 1963-1980
Box 1 Folder 63 1963-1980
Box 1 Folder 64 1963-1980
Box 1 Folder 65 1974
Box 1 Folder 66 1968-1982
Box 1 Folder 67 1968-1981
Box 1 Folder 68 1965-1982
Box 1 Folder 69 1965-1982
Box 1 Folder 70 1965-1982
Box 1 Folder 71 1965-1982
Box 1 Folder 72 1965-1982
Box 1 Folder 73 1969-1971
Box 1 Folder 74 1971-1973
Box 1 Folder 75 1981-1982
Box 1 Folder 76 1974
Box 1 Folder 77 1971
Box 1 Folder 78 1982
Box 1 Folder 79 1967-1972
Box 1 Folder 80 1973
Box 1 Folder 81 1963-1969
Box 1 Folder 82 1963-1969
Box 1 Folder 83 1963-1969
Box 1 Folder 84 1963-1969
Box 2 Folder 1 1969-1982
Box 2 Folder 2 1969-1982
Box 2 Folder 3 1972-1975
Box 2 Folder 4 1975
Box 2 Folder 5 1967-1970
Box 2 Folder 6 1967-1973
Box 2 Folder 7 1967-1973
Box 2 Folder 8 1968-1974
Box 2 Folder 9 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 10 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 11 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 12 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 13 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 14 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 15 1967-1974
Box 2 Folder 16 1969-1982
Box 2 Folder 17 1969-1982
Box 2 Folder 18 1969-1982
Box 2 Folder 19 1969-1975
Box 2 Folder 20 1965-1982
Box 2 Folder 21 1965-1982
Box 2 Folder 22 1965-1982
Box 2 Folder 23 1965-1982
Box 2 Folder 24 1975-1981
Box 2 Folder 25 1967-1983
Box 2 Folder 26 1967-1983
Box 2 Folder 27 1967-1983
Box 2 Folder 28 1967-1983
Box 2 Folder 29 1971-1972
Box 2 Folder 30 1970-1973
Box 2 Folder 31 1970-1973
Box 2 Folder 32 1973-1983
Box 2 Folder 33 1973-1983
Box 2 Folder 34 1972-1974
Box 2 Folder 35 1971
Box 2 Folder 36 1963-1981
Box 2 Folder 37 1963-1981
Box 2 Folder 38 1968-1977
Box 2 Folder 39 1968-1977
Box 2 Folder 40 1968-1977
Box 2 Folder 41 1963-1982
Box 2 Folder 42 1963-1982
Box 2 Folder 43 1963-1982
Box 2 Folder 44 1963-1982
Box 2 Folder 45 1972
Box 2 Folder 46 1967-1976
Box 2 Folder 47 1976-1983
Box 2 Folder 48 1976-1983
Box 2 Folder 49 1976-1983
Box 2 Folder 50 1976-1983
Box 2 Folder 51 1976-1983
Box 2 Folder 52 1980-1983
Box 2 Folder 53 1980-1983
Box 2 Folder 54 1950-1980
Box 2 Folder 55 1982-1983
Box 2 Folder 56 1975-1981
Box 2 Folder 57 1975-1977
Box 2 Folder 58 1952-1960
Box 2 Folder 59 1961
April-May
Box 2 Folder 60 1961
June-October
Box 2 Folder 61 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 62 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 63 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 64 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 65 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 66 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 67 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 68 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 69 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 70 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 71 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 72 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 73 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 74 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 75 1961-1983
Box 2 Folder 76 1961-1983
Box 3 Folder 1 1963-1983
Box 3 Folder 2 1963-1983
Box 3 Folder 3 1963-1983
Box 3 Folder 4 1963-1983
Box 3 Folder 5 1969-1977
Box 3 Folder 6 1968-1969
Box 3 Folder 7 1968-1969
Box 3 Folder 8 1967-1971
Box 3 Folder 9 1969-1973
Box 3 Folder 10 1969-1973
Box 3 Folder 11 1969-1973
Box 3 Folder 12 1969-1973
Box 3 Folder 13 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 14 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 15 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 16 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 17 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 18 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 19 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 20 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 21 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 22 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 23 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 24 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 25 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 26 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 27 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 28 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 29 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 30 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 31 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 32 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 33 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 34 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 35 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 36 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 37 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 38 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 39 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 40 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 41 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 42 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 43 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 44 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 45 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 46 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 47 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 48 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 49 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 50 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 51 1960-1975
Box 3 Folder 52 1971-1973
Box 3 Folder 53 1971-1973
Box 3 Folder 54 1971-1973
Box 3 Folder 55 1969-1977
Box 3 Folder 56 1969-1977
Box 3 Folder 57 1969-1977
Box 3 Folder 58 1970-1973
Box 3 Folder 59
Box 3 Folder 60 1947-1953
Box 3 Folder 61 1947-1953
Box 3 Folder 62 1969-1971
Box 3 Folder 63 1969-1975
Box 3 Folder 64 1969-1975
Box 3 Folder 65 1976-1983
Box 3 Folder 66 1967-1975
Box 3 Folder 67 1974
Box 3 Folder 68 1962-1981
Box 3 Folder 69 1962-1981
Box 3 Folder 70 1962-1981
Box 3 Folder 71 1970-1977
Box 3 Folder 72 1970-1974
Box 3 Folder 73 1970-1974
Box 3 Folder 74 1970-1974
Box 3 Folder 75 1970-1974
Box 3 Folder 76 1975
Box 3 Folder 77 1970-1975
Box 3 Folder 78 1972
Box 3 Folder 79 1970-1971
Box 3 Folder 80 1963-1981
Box 3 Folder 81 1975
Box 4 Folder 1 1972
Box 4 Folder 2 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 3 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 4 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 5 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 6 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 7 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 8 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 9 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 10 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 11 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 12 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 13 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 14 1962-1983
Box 4 Folder 15 1966-1983
Box 4 Folder 16 1966-1983
Box 4 Folder 17 1976-1980
Box 4 Folder 18 1981
Box 4 Folder 19 1976-1983
Box 4 Folder 20 1976-1983
Box 4 Folder 21 1975-1982
Box 4 Folder 22 1971
Box 4 Folder 23 1981
Box 4 Folder 24 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 25 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 26 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 27 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 28 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 29 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 30 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 31 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 32 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 33 1980
Box 4 Folder 34
Box 4 Folder 35 1970-1974
Box 4 Folder 36 1970-1975
Box 4 Folder 37 1970-1975
Box 4 Folder 38 1975-1977
Box 4 Folder 39 1975-1983
Box 4 Folder 40 1972-1981
Box 4 Folder 41 1967-1971
Box 4 Folder 42 1970-1971
Box 4 Folder 43 1977-1981
Box 4 Folder 44 1969-1970
Box 4 Folder 45 1969-1970
Box 4 Folder 46 1969-1970
Box 4 Folder 47 1960-1975
Box 4 Folder 48 1969-1971
Box 4 Folder 49 1972-1973
Box 4 Folder 50 1968-1970
Box 4 Folder 51 1968-1970
Box 4 Folder 52 1968-1970
Box 4 Folder 53 1971
Box 4 Folder 54 1967-1982
Box 4 Folder 55 1967-1982
Box 4 Folder 56 1967-1982
Box 4 Folder 57 1967-1982
Box 4 Folder 58 1967-1982
Box 4 Folder 59 1970-1976
Box 4 Folder 60 1970-1976
Box 4 Folder 61 1967-1980
Box 4 Folder 62 1970-1981
Box 4 Folder 63 1970-1981
Box 4 Folder 64 1970-1972
Box 4 Folder 65 1967-1970
Box 4 Folder 66 1977
Box 4 Folder 67 1962-1969
Box 4 Folder 68 1970-1971
Box 4 Folder 69 1969-1980
Box 4 Folder 70 1969-1976
Box 4 Folder 71 1969-1976
Box 4 Folder 72 1969-1976
Box 4 Folder 73 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 74 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 75 1965-1982
Box 4 Folder 76 1981-1982
Box 4 Folder 77 1967-1983
Box 4 Folder 78 1967-1983
Box 4 Folder 79 1966-1976
Box 4 Folder 80 1971-1981
Box 4 Folder 81 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 82 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 83 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 84 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 85 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 86 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 87 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 88 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 89 1967-1973
Box 4 Folder 90 1965-1981
Box 4 Folder 91 1965-1981
Box 4 Folder 92 1966-1974
Box 4 Folder 93 1966-1974
Box 5 Folder 1 1961-1969
Box 5 Folder 2 1970
Box 5 Folder 3 1947-1970
Box 5 Folder 4 1970
Box 5 Folder 5 1970
Box 5 Folder 6 1970
Box 5 Folder 6a 1972
Box 5 Folder 7
Box 5 Folder 8 1971
Box 5 Folder 9 1970
Box 5 Folder 9a
Box 5 Folder 10 1970
Box 5 Folder 11 1968-1970
Box 5 Folder 12 1967
Box 5 Folder 13 1973
Box 5 Folder 13a 1968
Box 5 Folder 13aa 1971
Box 5 Folder 13b 1969
Box 5 Folder 13c 1975
Box 5 Folder 14 1967-1969
Box 5 Folder 14a
Box 5 Folder 15 1970-1975
Box 5 Folder 15a
Box 5 Folder 16 1964-1970
Box 5 Folder 16a 1981-1982
Box 5 Folder 17 1970-1982
Box 5 Folder 17a
Box 5 Folder 18 1970
Box 5 Folder 19 1970-1980
Box 5 Folder 19a 1929-1981
Box 5 Folder 20a 1929-1981
Box 5 Folder 20b 1973-1974
Box 5 Folder 21 1963-1970
Box 5 Folder 21a 1965
Box 5 Folder 22 1970
Box 5 Folder 23
Box 5 Folder 24 1961
Box 5 Folder 25 1962-1963
Box 5 Folder 26 1970
Box 5 Folder 27 1964-1975
Box 5 Folder 28 1964-1975
Box 5 Folder 29 1969-1971
Box 5 Folder 30 1969-1971
Box 5 Folder 31 1969-1971
Box 5 Folder 32 1967-1976
Box 5 Folder 34 1963-1968
Box 5 Folder 35 1980-1982
Box 5 Folder 36 1960-1968
Box 5 Folder 37 1960-1968
Box 5 Folder 38 1963-1967
Box 5 Folder 39 1961-1968
Box 5 Folder 40 1980-1982
Box 5 Folder 41 1980-1982
Box 5 Folder 42
Box 5 Folder 43 1962-1983
Box 5 Folder 44
Box 5 Folder 45
Box 5 Folder 46
Newspaper and magazine articles, foreign materials, reports
Box 5 Folder 48 1957-1965
Box 5 Folder 49 1965-1969
Box 5 Folder 50 1969
Box 5 Folder 51 1970
Box 5 Folder 52 1970-1971
Box 5 Folder 53 1973-1980
Box 5 Folder 54 1980
Box 5 Folder 55
Box 5 Folder 56 1950-1973
Box 5 Folder 57 1977-1981
Box 5 Folder 58 1981-1983
Box 5 Folder 59 1948-1949
Box 5 Folder 60 1949-1950
Box 5 Folder 61 1950-1951
Box 6 Folder 1 1951-1963
Box 6 Folder 2 1961-1963
Box 6 Folder 3 1964-1966
Box 6 Folder 4 1966-1968
Box 6 Folder 5 1968-1970
Box 6 Folder 6 1970
Box 6 Folder 7 1971-1973
Box 6 Folder 8 1973-1981
Box 6 Folder 9 1983
Box 6 Folder 10
Box 6 Folder 11
Box 6 Folder 12
Box 6 Folder 13
Box 6 Folder 14
Box 6 Folder 15
Box 6 Folder 16
Box 6 Folder 17
Stamps, pictures, biographical material
Box 6 Folder 19
Box 6 Folder 20
Box 6 Folder 21
Box 6 Folder 23
Box 6 Folder 24
Box 6 Folder 25
Box 6 Folder 26
Box 7 Folder 1
Box 7 Folder 2 1964-1973
Box 7 Folder 3 1957-1960
Box 7 Folder 4 1960-1966
Box 7 Folder 5 1966-1970
Box 7 Folder 6 1968
Box 7 Folder 7 1967
Box 7 Folder 8 1968
Box 7 Folder 9 1960-1967
Box 7 Folder 10 1967
Box 7 Folder 11 1969-1973
Box 7 Folder 12 1967
Box 7 Folder 13 1967
Box 7 Folder 14 1968
Box 7 Folder 15 1969-1970
Box 7 Folder 16 1966-1969
Box 7 Folder 17 1958-1964
Box 7 Folder 18 1965-1968
Box 7 Folder 19 1973
Box 7 Folder 20 1974
Box 7 Folder 21 1960-1962
Box 7 Folder 22 1960-1970
Box 7 Folder 23 1967
Box 7 Folder 24 1968