ILGWU. Joint Board shop lists

Collection Number: 5780/164

Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library


DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY

Title:
ILGWU. Joint Board shop lists, 1929-1954
Collection Number:
5780/164
Creator:
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
Quantity:
2 linear ft.
Forms of Material:
Articles, reprints, pamphlets, correspondence, photographs.
Repository:
Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
Abstract:
The collection consists of shop lists for both the New York Cloak and Dress Joint Boards.
Language:
Collection material in English


ILGWU ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY

Founded in 1900 by local union delegates representing about 2,000 members in cities in the northeastern United States, the ILGWU grew in geographical scope, membership size, political influence to become one of the most powerful forces in American organized labor by mid-century. Representing workers in the women's garment industry, the ILGWU worked to improve working and living conditions of its members through collective bargaining agreements, training programs, health care facilities, cooperative housing, educational opportunities, and other efforts. In 1995, the ILGWU merged with the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU) to form the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE).

COMBINED HISTORY OF NEW YORK CLOAK AND DRESS JOINT BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY

At the beginning in 1900 there was the Cloakmakers' Union of New York and Local 1 United Brotherhood of Cloakmakers of New York and vicinity. In the early years, membership and meeting attendance was low. Local 9 Cloak and Suit Tailors, New York was soon chartered, as well as Local 35 Cloak Pressers. Benjamin Schlesinger became manager of the New York Joint Board of Cloak Makers' Union in 1904. By 1906, there was a movement within the childrens' cloak and reefer makers industry to organize, so that by 1908, the New York Joint Board of Cloak and Skirt Makers' Union was composed of Operators' Local 1, Tailors' Local 9, Reefer Makers' Local 17, Skirt Makers' Local 23 and Pressers' Local 35. From the convention of that year it was stated that "The object of the J.B. is to agitate the principle of Trade Unionism among the working people engaged in the Cloak and Skirt Trades and to transact their business in common, and to call, conduct and settle strikes and disputes (Ninth Annual Convention of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, 1908, p. 31).
Between 1908 and 1910, the Joint Board enacted 77 strikes and lockouts, 57 of which were settled favorably for the union. At the tenth convention in 1910, a resolution was introduced for empowering the General Executive Board to make necessary preparation and call a strike when appropriate. The Joint Board, now consisting of Cloak Operators Local 1, Cloak and Suit Tailors Local 9, Amalgamated Ladies' Garment Local 10, Cloak and Skirt Makers of Brownsville Local 11, Reefers Makers Local 17, Skirt Makers Local 23, Cloak Pressers Local 35, Buttonhole Makers Local 64, and Cloak and Suit Pressers of Brownsville Local 68, began strike preparations, appointing committee members, and renting halls, and calling a mass meeting that filled Madison Square Garden. A vote was taken with 18,771 against 615 in favor of a general strike. On July 7, 1910 the workers left the shops and joined the picket lines. As workers continued to join the strike, estimates varied from 50,000 to 60,000 strikers in the "Great Revolt." With the industry paralyzed, manufacturers were looking to settle, and small shops began signing agreements. It took until September 2 for a proposal to be accepted by the Joint Board and the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' Protective Association, known as "The Protocol of Peace." While not all demands were won, the workers gained a 50 hour work week, double pay for overtime, and a higher minimum wage scale among others. In January of 1913, the Joint Board appointed Isaac Hourwich to the position of Chief Clerk of the Cloak and Skirt Makers' Union. In his new post, Hourwich sought to reform the Protocol of Peace, a system set up by Louis Brandeis to resolve conflicts in the garment industry between workers and manufacturers without arbitration. His attempt to amend the protocol bothered the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' Association and put him out of favor with the International office. While the union sought to force Hourwich from his position, he instead decided to seek reappointment. A struggle emerged between Hourwich and the workers and locals that supported him and the International. This became known as the "Hourwich Affair" and concluded with Hourwich's resignation in 1914.
After a lockout in May 1916, a general strike was declared and lasted fourteen weeks and an amended agreement with a reduced week, wage increase, and a continuation of the Joint Board of Sanitary Control (created earlier by the Protocol). In 1917 Morris Sigman assumed the position of general manager of the Joint Board, and the relationship between the Board and component locals continued to improve. Another general strike occurred in May 1919 which brought the cloak industry to a standstill. In July 1922, the Joint Board ordered a general stoppage in the cloak industry during negotiations to reach a new agreement with the Protective Association. The controversy focused on the "social" or small shop, a form of sweatshop that employed only two or three workers. By the spring of 1923, a new department was created within the Joint Board to monitor the work given out by jobbers to subordinate shops. It was the goal that the work be sent to unions shops only and that jobbers be made responsible for the observance of union standards in those shops. A series of conferences between the union with the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' Protective Association (manufacturers), American Cloak and Suit Manufacturers' Association (sub-manufacturers), and Merchants Ladies' Garment Association (jobbers) in March 1924 led to a program of demands by the General Executive Board which included: increase in minimum wage scale; establishment of 40 hour week; adoption of a sanitary and union label; and unemployment insurance. When no agreement could be reached by June 1924, New York Governor Alfred E. Smith appointed a Special Advisory Commission which held hearings in City Hall. A final report was rendered June 27 and recommendations submitted. Accepted by the union, sub-manufacturers, and manufacturers, the jobbers refused until July 7, 1924 when the Merchants' Association agreed to the terms of the Governors' Commission. (See 5780/161, 5780/165, 6036/009 for hearing transcripts) A general work stoppage in the entire cloak trade occurred on July 8, 1924 and lasted four weeks. The Special Commission established an Impartial Chairman for the whole cloak industry (Raymond Ingersoll, 6036/015) and organized a sanitary label division (the Prosanis Label) in the Joint Board of Sanitary Control. Shortly after, the Joint Board organized a Label and Unemployment Insurance office. After six months, in April 1925, a report was released from an investigation into the conditions in the New York cloak industry comparing shops, workers and wages from 1911 to 1924.
ILGWU rules had stipulated that no more than one local of the same craft exist in a city. In 1924, the General Executive Board sought to merge cloak operators' Locals 1, 11, and 17. After a seven week struggle with much resistance from Local 17, the three locals were amalgamated into Local 2 Cloak, Suit and Reefer Operators of Greater New York. Problems also troubled the Joint Board beginning in 1925 with Locals 2, 9, and 22, and the Communist control of the locals. The infighting caused the resignation of officers within the Joint Board to retain unity. A long battle resulted with charges levied against members and officers of the locals, and the election of new leadership.
The hearings before the Governor's Commission continued into 1926, with a final report issued in May. It was at this time that a general strike committee was formed to assess the situation. Communists had been controlling the special committee of the Joint Board and positioned themselves on crucial committees and posts during strike preparations. The Communists leaders called a mass meeting in Madison Square Garden on June 29, 1928. To maintain unity, the GEB and International pledged support, though from the beginning it was apparent that the strike was to be conducted for political purposes. A strike call was set for July 1, and thus began a disastrous episode for the Joint Board and union. The Communists in control of the strike mismanaged and mishandled efforts for a productive and effective strike. From the beginning, the strike was plagued by a failure to successfully organize for the strike, failure to provide financial aid for strikers, a misappropriation for the money raised and collected, and a dismissal of opportunities that would have led to an early and favorable settlement. An agreement was reached on November 12, 1926 after 20 weeks of "strike, suffering and starvation." The agreement was far below the recommendations of the Governor's Commission and caused the union many losses; loss of the season and wages for the workers; loss of millions of dollars in strike funds; loss of membership; and concessions that amounted to no increases and no agreements with jobbers and sub-manufacturers. The union took a financial, moral, and economic hit. Internal fighting between the Communist members and the union continued to escalate. When the Communist leadership refused to submit to the demands of the sub-manufacturers and enter into arbitration, thousands of workers in sub-manufacturing shops were locked out on December 9, 1926, joining the others in strike halls. The workers caught in the middle between the GEB and Communist leadership in the cloak locals were desperate for assistance and appealed to the union. The International formed provisional committees to take over power. In response, the Communist strike leadership organized a mass-meeting in Madison Square Garden, excluding the non-communist union members. At the mass-meeting, the Communists ordered all workers back to the shops without a settlement. The GEB and the provisional Joint Board issued a registration for all members in the Joint Board to receive new books—finally choosing whether they wanted to stand with the ILGWU or continue to follow the Communist Party. The process of reconstruction began, with the union making settlements with the sub-manufacturers and jobbers, and a renewal of the agreement in the dress industry. Registration back into the union continued and new officers for the locals were elected and the Joint Board had a long rebuilding process through 1927 to repair morale and financial damage. By June 1927, the Joint Board and Locals 2, 3, 9, 22, 23 and 82 moved back into the old building of the Joint Board.
1928 saw the establishment of a 40-hour, five-day week. Also beginning in 1928, vice president Isidore Nagler served as the general manager for the Joint Board. The Cloak Joint Board and the International issued a strike call and on July 2, 1929, and 28,000 cloakmakers stopped work. Ten days later, resolutions were adopted, and by July 16, the new collective agreements were signed. While New York was the biggest market in the country for cloak manufacturing, the industry did feel the effects of the Depression, with massive unemployment, the Joint Board tried to curb overtime if there are vacancies in shops. The Joint Board entered into a battle with manufacturers who wanted a return to piece work and the union who wanted week-work. Strike preparations took place and on July 13, 1932, a strike vote was approved if negotiations failed. At the last minute, mediation reached a new agreement retaining week-work. A work stoppage still occurred from July 27, 1932-August 18, 1932 hastening the conclusion of the negotiations. Another cloak industry stoppage from August 14, 1933 lasted two weeks, with agreements with cloak associations and the adoption of the NRA codes for the cloak industry. The NRA label was to appear in garments to eliminate sub-standard and sweatshop conditions. Labels were attached to every garment with a registration number assigned to each employer verifying they complied with the standards of the Code. In 1937, jurisdiction of the snowsuit shops was transferred to Cloak Joint Board which formed a new special Snowsuit Department.
At the beginning of the 1940s, the Joint Board was composed of 9 local unions--Locals 9 (Finishers and Tailors), 10 (Cutters), 23 (Skirtmakers), 35 (Cloak Pressers), 48 (Italian Cloakmakers), 117 (Cloak Operators), 64 (Buttonhole Makers), 82 (Cloak Examiners), 30 (Coat and Suit Designers), and viewed as the "backbone" of the ILGWU since 1910. The cloakmakers were the first to introduce and successfully support the practice of collective bargaining on an industry-wide scale in New York, and still maintained its position as a leader in change for the industry. General Manager Nagler declined to be a candidate for reelection in 1939. In February 1939, a temporary administrative committee was formed to manage affairs until August 1939, when vice-president Israel Feinberg (ILGWU director on the Pacific Coast since 1933) became the new general manager of the Cloak Joint Board, a position he held previously from 1920-1925. The Joint Board was active in the affairs of the National Coat and Suit Industry Recovery Board (formed in 1935 after the demise of the NRA) to help stabilize the industry and make sure production was under decent standards of employment. In 1943 the Board established an industry maintained Retirement fund that went into effect January 1944 providing (at the time) $600 per year for the approximately 35,000 members in the ILGWU cloak locals of New York who are 65 and older. An arbitrator award in June 1946 brought a wage increase, as well as the creation of a health and vacation fund contributed by the employers. Officially beginning operation January 1947, the health plan included medical treatment, hospitalization, sick benefits, eye exams, and tuberculosis benefits. Beginning in June 1947, cloakmakers would receive on weeks' vacation with pay. The Cloak Joint Board outgrew its headquarters on West 33rd St. and purchased a new building on West 38th St. between Fifth and Sixth Aves. to accommodate all the departments of the Cloak Joint Board and Local 23.
In December 1951, general manager Feinberg became ill and Louis Hyman (Local 9) took over as acting general manager. He officially retired in early 1952. In May 1952, Isidore Nagler was once again appointed the general manager (1928-1939). Feinberg (general manager from 1939-1952) died in September 1952. Towards the end of the decade, there were changes in the industry after the war, with a rise of section work, and for the first time, women were now majority of the workers. Local 102 Cloak and Dress Drivers' joined the Joint Board. In September 1959, Nagler died, and Henoch Mendelsund, who had been Nagler's assistant for six years, became the new manager of the Joint Board. By 1965 the change in demographics continued and almost 70% of the cloak workforce was now female. At the end of the 1960s, the Joint Board was composed of Local 117 Cloak Operators, Local 9 Cloak Finishers, Local 35 Cloak Pressers, Local 48 Italian Cloakmakers, Local 23-25 Blouse, Skirt and Sportswear Workers (November 1963 merger and name change), Local 82 Examiners, Local 64 Buttonhole Workers, and the cloak portion of Cutters Local 10.
The 1970s saw the introduction of new materials not previously used in coat and suit making, including fake fur, plastics, leather and suede. In January 1973, Mendelsund appointed Local 48 manager and union first vice president E. Howard Molisani the associate general manager for the Joint Board, and in July 1973, Mendelsund relinquished his post after 20 years of service in the Joint Board. At that time, Molisani became the general manager. The operations of the 1972 National Board of the Coat and Suit Industry (name changed from National Coat and Suit Industry Recovery Board) were discontinued in 1972. A restructure of cloak locals in New York City in 1972 precipitated by changes in the industry (membership decline, decline in coat and suit production, diversification of crafts and products, elimination of hand work), addressed locals based on outdated craft divisions, language or ethnic origin. The new locals consisted of: Local 1 United Coat, Suit and Allied Garment Workers' Union of Manhattan and the Bronx (operators, finishers, sample tailors, examiners, floor workers and buttonhole makers), Local 35 Coat, Suit, Sportswear and Allied Garment Pressers' Union (pressers in the coat and suit industry in Manhattan and the Bronx as well as pressers in sportswear shops), Local 48 United Coat, Suit and Allied Garment Workers' Union of Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island (coat and suit workers in all crafts in Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island). Locals 10 (Cutters) and 23-25 (Blouse, Skirt and Sportswear) were not affected. All assets and liabilities of the locals were transferred to the Joint Board and instituted were uniform amounts of dues, initiation fees and assessments for the locals, with the Joint Board handling the finances. The Cloak Joint Board name was officially changed to Joint Board of Coat, Suit and Allied Garment Workers' Unions.
Meanwhile, in the dress industry, beginning in 1900, manufacturers of shirtwaists branched out and began to create dresses. Local 25 Ladies' Waist Makers' Union was chartered in 1905 after the reorganization of unsuccessful locals. By 1908, there were over 600 waist and dress shops in New York employing over 30,000 workers. Long hours of 56 hour weeks, overtime, low pay, and rampant sub-contracting led to agitation among the poorly treated women workers. Smaller strikes throughout 1909 over the intolerable conditions paved the way for a meeting at Cooper Union on November 22. Thousands filled the hall when 23 year old Clara Lemlich, a striker on a picket line, rose to spoke and called for a general strike. The "Uprising of Twenty Thousand" involved waist makers from New York, Brooklyn, and Brownsville. Amidst hunger, cold, imprisonment, and unscrupulous bosses, the women on the picket lines continued their fight, the strike lasting fourteen weeks until February 15, 1910. While not a complete success, the strike did result in individual contracts, higher wages, and a large increase in union membership. As the industry expanded over the years, so did the union, becoming Local 25 Waist and Dress Makers' Union, which would soon become the biggest local in the union. In the beginning of 1913, another strike involved 30,000 workers and resulted in a collective agreement. Workers left their shops again in February 1916 ending with a revised Protocol. It was also at this time that Local 25 began a summer vacation resort for its members, an idea that would soon take off with the International and become Unity House.
In 1920, Local 25 was the only local in New York for the waist and dress industry. The large size of the local made it difficult to properly control and adequately service all of the members. At the 1920 Convention, the General Executive Board enacted a resolution to establish a Joint Board within Local 25 and charter separate locals for dressmakers and waistmakers. By 1921, there was organized a Joint Board composed of Local 22 Dressmakers, Local 25 Waistmakers, Local 58 Waist Buttonhole Makers, Local 60 Waist and Dress Pressers, Local 66 Bonnaz Embroidery Workers, Local 89 Italian Waist and Dressmakers, and the waist and dress branch of Cutters' Local 10. The new arrangement was not without problems among the recently rearranged locals. The new Dress and Waistmakers' Joint Board soon began new agreement negotiations with the Dress Manufacturers' Association, and called a general strike on February 9, 1921. Julius Hochman managed the Dress and Waistmakers' Joint Board. With a large growth of jobbers in the industry sending work to non-union shops, the Joint Board inaugurated a drive in the summer of 1922 to strike the big jobbing firms and bring workers under union contracts. A general work stoppage in February 1923 in the dress industry won the union a 40 hour week and 10 percent wage increase, as well as a large gain of new members. During the summer of 1923, after years of discussion and deliberation, the two dress locals, Local 23 and 22 were consolidated. The dressmakers from Local 23 transferred to Local 22 and subsequently Local 22 joined the New York Cloakmakers' Joint Board. Later, the Dress Pressers' Local 60 joined Local 35 the Cloak Pressers' Union. Soon, the Dress and Waist Joint Board became unnecessary and was dissolved. Local 89, the Italian Dress and Waistmakers' Union, affiliated with the Cloak Board as well, and both dress and cloak industries in New York were represented by the Cloak and Dress Joint Board. Local 25 Waistmakers were left without an affiliated organization and in October 1924 merged with the Dressmakers' Union, Local 22.
At the end of 1924, the Joint Board met with the Wholesale Dress Manufacturers' Association and although conferences continued into 1925, but resulted in the introduction of a sanitary label in the dress industry and an unemployment insurance fund. The "prosanis" label in the dress industry was launched by the Sanitary Joint Board on April 15, 1925. During the remainder of 1925, many of the dress agreements went unenforced with the upsurge of workers in non-union plants and the internal conflict created by the rise to power of the Communists within the local. A "peace pact" resulted in the resignation of vice president Julius Hochman who had been managing the dress division, replaced by a staff of Communist officials headed by Charles Zimmerman. By the end of 1926, the Communists had gained control of the dress organization in New York City and the union barely existed. But during 1927 and 1928, the Joint Board persisted with organizing activities in an attempt to strengthen its position. Julius Hochman was elected general manager of the Joint Board and later in December 1927 Elias Reisberg was elected manager of the dress department. In 1929, the General Executive Board formed the Dress Trade Council consisting of representatives of dress locals to begin to rehabilitate the dress organization. Also at this time, Hochman was appointed manager of the Dress Division of the Joint Board and launched a large dress campaign to increase membership. Isidore Nagler served as general manager of Joint Board.
In February 4, 1930, 25,000 dressmakers walked out of the shops. And while the strike was settled eight days later, the strike was called to reorganize dressmakers and establish collection relationships with employers and collective agreements as well as finally abolish the Communist influence in the industry. On April 8, 1930 the General Executive Board decided to separate the dressmakers from the Cloakmakers' Joint Board and give them back an autonomous joint board to govern their own affairs. The new independent Dress Joint Board addressed dress manufacturers list of 38 demands during contract negotiations, and when an agreement could not be reached, on February 16, 1932, a general strike of the dressmakers lasted two weeks. This defensive strike renewed collective agreements. Another walkout in all dress shops, both union and non-union on August 16, 1933 brought the dress industry to a halt. A quick resolution resulted in 35 hours/5 day weeks, fixed wages for week and piece workers, and guaranteed minimum wages. By February 1934, the Dress Joint Board moved to new larger offices along with Locals 22 and 89, illustrating a drastic turnaround from previous years. The dress industry was now the biggest organized center in the ILGWU.
The historic revival of the New York dress organization in 1933 created the largest single body of workers within the union. By the 1940s, the Dress Joint Board was composed of Locals 89 (Italian Dressmakers), 22, 60 (Dress Pressers) and the Dress Division of Cutters' Local 10. Added to that, in 1939 the Dress Joint Board took over responsibility for and control over the working conditions and agreements of silk dress production in the Eastern and the Cotton Dress Departments. The Joint Board worked to create a WPA sewing project for unemployed dressmakers, as well as establishing in 1938 a Samplemakers' Labor Bureau. Unfortunately, the lack of styles during the war years caused economic problems, with shrinking production and unemployment. With the collective agreement of March 1944, an industry-wide health and vacation fund covered members of Locals 89, 22 and 60 and included sick benefits, hospitalization, medical services at the Union Health Center, eye exams, and tuberculosis aid, as well as one week's paid vacation. Additionally, a retirement system supplemented the health and vacation fund, the Retirement Fund and Health and Welfare Fund of the Dress Joint Board. Soon, the dress industry was back to pre-war production levels with an increase in styles, though the industry often had difficulty adapting to the postwar retail market and new consumer attitude. The Joint Board launched a large scale organization drive at the end of the decade which was met with resistance, often violent, by "for hire" thugs interfering on picket lines and threatening Joint Board officers. Zimmerman, now a vice-president as well as manager of Local 22, supervised the drive to organize the open shops. It was during this drive that dress presser and temporary organizer William Lurye was murdered in May 1949 as the open shops employed racketeering to prevent unionization. The anti-open shop campaign succeeded in bringing union conditions and standards to the new shops.
The New York Dress Institute was formed with the assistance of the Joint Board in 1941 to promote American fashions and establish New York as the fashion capital. While the Joint Board suspended payments in 1944, the Institute still operated, having fashion shows, distributing fashion photographs for publications, and maintaining the best dressed women list. By 1953, the Dress Institute cut operation due to lack of funds and began operating as the Couture Group of the Dress Institute. At a GEB meeting in 1953, shipping clerks in the dress industry were unionized to form Local 60A, a branch of Local 60. The locals in Joint Board now included Locals 89, 22, and 60-60A Dress Pressers and Shipping Clerks. Julius Hochman resigned as manager of the Dress Joint Board in June 1958 after 29 years (since 1929) to direct the new ILGWU Union Label Department. He was succeeded by Charles Zimmerman, who had been manager of Local 22 for 25 years. 1958 also saw the formation of the Dressmakers' Joint Council, which consisted of the Joint Board, as well as the dress sections of the Eastern Out-of-Town and Northeast Departments. Zimmerman was also manager of the new Joint Council. Sol Greene, assistant director of the Northeast Department, became the new assistant general manager of the Joint Board. The Joint Board in January 1959 was the first ILGWU affiliate to introduce the new union label.
A March 1958 walkout of 105,000 dressmakers in the New York metropolitan area was the first general strike in 25 years. Negotiations with employers began at the end of 1957 and with no resolution in sight, the contracts, set to expire January 1958, were extended for another month. Again, with no agreement in sight, the strike committee set the date of March 5 for the walkout. At ten o'clock that morning, thousands and thousands of garment workers left the shops and made their way into the streets. Soon Madison Square Garden was filled and tens of thousands pickets organized. A few days later, Mayor Wagner called strike leaders and appointed from Senator Lehman and Impartial Chairman Harry Uviller to mediate the strike. The five day general strike resulted in a new contract for workers including wage increases, a 7 hour day/ 35 hour week for piece and time workers with overtime pay, and the establishment of a severance fund.
The decades of the 1960s and 70s saw a decline in shops and jobs in New York City with firms going out of business. In June 1969, Local 38 Theatrical Costume, Ladies Tailors voted to affiliate with the Joint Board, representing theatrical costume workers and custom tailors in departments stores. Additional diversifying included a newly formed Local 159 of office employees in the dress industry. Charles Zimmerman retired on July 1, 1972 as union vice president and manager of the Dress Joint Council and New York Dress Joint Board. Murray Gross, who had been associate general manager since 1969 became the general manager of the Joint Board and Joint Council. The Joint Board now consisted of Locals 89, 22, 60-60A and 159 along with the new Local 38 and 159. March 1974 saw the initial movement to reorganize the Joint Board by combining and merging various departments. By 1975, the New York Dress Joint Board completed restructuring of affiliate locals, and Locals 60-60A, 159, and 38 were merged into existing Locals 22 and 89. Local 22 gained jurisdiction over all dressmakers in Manhattan and Local 89 was designated the local for all Bronx and Brooklyn members. Vice president and general manager Murray Gross retired and Sam Nemaizer became manager after the 1974 convention. There were changes in leadership also as Locals 22 and 89 saw long serving managers began to retire.
In November 1977, the executive committee of the ILGWU General Executive Board enacted a resolution that merged the existing cloak, dress, rainwear and other affiliates in New York, thus ending the separate existence of the New York Cloak and Dress Joint Boards. The New York Cloak-Dress Joint Board and Affiliates consisted of Local 1-35 United Coat, Suit, Rainwear and Allied Workers Union of Manhattan; Local 10 Cutters; Local 22 Dressmakers Union of Manhattan; Local 48 Coat, Suit, Dress, Rainwear and Allied Workers Union of North Brooklyn; Local 77 Coat, Suit, Dress, Rainwear and Allied Workers Union of Queens; Local 89 Coat, Suit, Dress, Rainwear and Allied Workers Union of South Brooklyn; and Local 189 Coat, Suit, Dress, Rainwear and Allied Workers Union of the Bronx. At the same time, sportswear locals previously under the Dress or Cloak Joint Board were now a part of the new New York Sportswear and Allied Workers Joint Board (Local 10 Cutters; Local 23-25 Blouse, Skirt and Sportswear Workers; Local 91 Children's Dressmakers; Local 105 Snowsuit, Infants, and Novelty Sportswear; and Local 155 Knitgoods Workers). The new resolution redrew existing locals' jurisdiction to represent workers along geographic as well as industrial lines. The changes created a more efficient and economical representation of the workers and provided greater organizing ability and bargaining power. E. Howard Molisani, an ILGWU vice-president and manager of the Cloak Joint Board, was elected to serve as the general manager of the new organization. Following his retirement in July 1978, Samuel Nemaizer (formerly manager of the Dress Joint Board) was appointed to succeed Molisani as general manager.
In late 1981, the Joint Board approved a measure to dissolve Locals 48, 77 and 189 to create a stronger financial foundation for the organization. Members were transferred to Locals 22, 1-35 and 89. Local 89 was renamed Local 89-48 to honor the historic significance of the Italian cloakmakers. An October 1984 meeting resulted in more restructuring of the board and locals into a new Local 89-22-1. Changes in the garment industry necessitated the dissolution of the Joint Board and Locals 22 and 89-48. The charter of Local 1-35 was amended to create the new Local 89-22-1. With the consolidation of staff and retirements of managers Samuel Nemaizer, Manuel Gonzalez and Frank Longo, Samuel Byer, associate general manager of the New York Coat-Dress-Rainwear Joint Board was elected manager of Local 89-22-1. The New York Sportswear Joint Board was renamed the New York Joint Board in August 1985, and Locals 62-32 and 66-40 joined the existing affiliates Locals 23-25, 155, 91-105 and 10 and managed by Edgar Romney. After the retirement in 1993 of Samuel Byer, Barbara Laufman was elected manager of Local 89-22-1. Local 89-22-1 was the successor to some of the oldest locals in the union from the coat, dress, suite and rainwear industries, as well as both the New York Dress and Cloak Joint Boards. In July 1922, the New York State District merged with Local 89-22-1.

COLLECTION DESCRIPTION

The collection is mainly composed of shop lists. These exist for the Joint Board of Cloak, Skirt, Dress and Reefer Makers' Union, the Joint Board of the Dress and Waistmakers' Union, and the Joint Board of Cloakmakers' Union. There are alphabetized lists of union shops with addresses that also illustrate changes, additions, and deletions to the shops working within the Joint Boards. Also included is a listing of "Manufacturers and Jobbers, Dress Industry," produced by the Research Department in 1940 with information not only contained to New York City, but to locations across the United States.
SUBJECTS

Names:
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. New York Cloak Joint Board.

Subjects:
Women's clothing industry--United States.
Women's clothing industry--New York (State)
Labor unions--Clothing workers-- United States.
Labor unions--Clothing workers--New York (State)
Clothing workers--United States.
Clothing workers--New York (State)
Industrial relations--United States.
Industrial relations--New York (State)

Form and Genre Terms:
Records


INFORMATION FOR USERS

Access Restrictions:
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Restrictions on Use:
This collection must be used in keeping with the Kheel Center Information Sheet and Procedures for Document Use.
Cite As:
ILGWU. Joint Board shop lists #5780/164. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library.

RELATED MATERIALS

Related Collections:
5780: ILGWU records
5780/041: ILGWU. New York Cloak Joint Board payroll analysis
5780/020: ILGWU. New York Cloak Joint Board records
5780/032: ILGWU. New York Cloak Joint Board minutes
5780/033: ILGWU. New York Dress Joint Board minutes

CONTAINER LIST

Container
Description
Date
Box 1 Folder 1 1929
Cloak, Skirt, Dress, and Reefer Makers' Union. August 24
Box 1 Folder 2 1933
New York City
Box 1 Folder 3 1943
Box 1 Folder 4 1943
Volume 2
Box 1 Folder 5 1943
Volume 1
Box 1 Folder 6 1949
Volume 1
Box 1 Folder 7 1949
Volume 2
Box 1 Folder 8 1942-1948
Box 1 Folder 9 1954
Volume 1
Box 1 Folder 10 1954
Volume 2
Box 2 Folder 1 1936-1940
Box 2 Folder 2 1940
Box 2 Folder 3 1940
Box 2 Folder 4 1940
September
Box 2 Folder 5 1940
January 9