ACTWU's Project Files, 1976-1998

Collection Number: 5619/019

Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives
Cornell University Library


ACTWU's Project files, 1976-1998
Collection Number:
Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union (ACTWU).
United Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE)
2 linear feet
Forms of Material:
Correspondence, reports, publications.
Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library
This collection consists of material relating to Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union and UNITE special projects, including Bargaining Unit Directories, Brand Name Directories, and member surveys.
Collection material in English


The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the most significant union representing workers in the men's clothing industry, was founded in New York City in 1914 as a breakaway movement from the United Garment Workers. Radical and immigrant workers in the tailors’ and cutters’ locals were the core of the seceding group, which advocated industrial unionism and economic strikes in opposition to the UGW’s craft organization, which they saw as conservative and timid. Their diverging views had come to the fore during the historic 1910 dispute at the Chicago firm Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. The opposition called the strike against the UGW leadership’s advice, and reached a path-breaking agreement with management that established an arbitration system to settle disputes.
Members flocked to the new union. Around 50,000 strong at its founding, by 1920 the ACWA counted about 170,000 members. Initially composed mostly of immigrants of Jewish European descent with Socialist leanings, the ACWA quickly welcomed members of a great number of nationalities and diverse backgrounds. Like in other garment unions, most workers and many members were women, but the leadership was predominantly male, a situation that did not change for many decades. Early on the union adopted a centralized administrative structure combined with industrial unionism, with the joint boards’ by-laws having precedence over those of locals.
Espousing a philosophy perhaps brought over by its early immigrant socialist members, the Amalgamated went beyond bread and butter issues and adopted a distinctive form of social unionism that was largely absent in the American labor movement. Starting in the 1920s, it provided educational opportunities and recreational facilities for its members, as well as services such as an insurance plan, banks offering personal loans at low interest rates, low-cost housing cooperatives, medical clinics, and even union-owned restaurants.
Sidney Hillman was the first president of the new union and the most important officer in its history. He applied his experience as bargaining representative in Chicago to the whole industry. Under his leadership the union made significant strides in securing better wages and working conditions for its members, and at the same time it consolidated gains and provided stability to the industry through the widespread adoption of the arbitration system tested at Hart, Schaffner, and Marx. Hillman paid close attention to industry issues, such as production, pricing, and marketing. In order to help management meet the competition of non-union firms, the union conducted studies of efficiency, work methods, and factory costs. Letters to the official publication of the union, Advance, document the controversy that ensued within the union over what was perceived to be collaboration with management.
Hillman also understood the importance of labor’s involvement in national affairs and political action. In the 1920s the ACWA sent delegates to the Conference for Progressive Political Action and to the Farmer-labor party conventions. Although many members and officers were Socialists, the union stopped short of officially endorsing the party. Communist attempts at gaining influence within the union were firmly curbed. Hillman’s participation in national affairs and politics became prominent during the New Deal, when he became a close advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt on labor and economic issues. He also served on the board of the National Recovery Administration. Later, during World War II, he helped establish the Labor’s Non Partisan League. He was also named associate director of the Office of Production Management, which assisted in mobilizing the nation's resources for the war effort. Hillman’s prestige perhaps reflected the healthy condition of his union, which by the end of the conflict was strong and stable.
During the post World War II period the union faced a number of significant challenges. Membership continued to grow (peaking at 395,000 in 1968), but the union’s political influence and visibility in national affairs declined. In their never ending pursuit of lower production costs, many firms relocated to the South, forcing the union to engage in large organizing efforts. Simultaneously, signs began to appear of changes that would lead to the almost complete demise of the domestic apparel industry and, ultimately, to the erosion of union membership. Foreign imports of cheap clothing goods steadily grew in the 1950s and 1960s, and mushroomed in the following two decades, plunging employment in the apparel sector into a steady decline. Union efforts to stem the tide included Buy American campaigns and extensive lobbying in Congress, but they were to no avail. In 1976, the ACWA merged with the Textile Workers of America to become the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Despite successful and much publicized nationwide actions such as the Farah boycott and the J.P. Stevens corporate campaign, the woes threatening the union’s existence continued unabated. The fate of the domestic industry was sealed in the late 1970s and the 1980s by the flight of firms chasing tax breaks and cheap labor abroad. By 1995, when ACTWU voted to merge with the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, their combined membership was 350,000. The new Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE!) seemed poised to infuse new life in a troubled union.

Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union
Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union --Archives
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union --Archives
Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE) --Archives
UNITE HERE (Organization) --Archives

Textile workers--Labor unions--New York (State)
Clothing workers--Labor unions--New York (State)

Form and Genre Terms:


Access Restrictions:
Access to the collections in the Kheel Center is restricted. Please contact a reference archivist for access to these materials.
Restrictions on Use:
This collection must be used in keeping with the Kheel Center Information Sheet and Procedures for Document Use.
Cite As:
ACTWU's Project files, #5619/019. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library.


Related collections:
5619: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
And all other 5619 collections.


Box 1 Folder 1
ACTWU Brand Name Directory
1983, 1985, 1989, 1993
Box 1 Folder 2
ACTWU Grants Programs/Applications
Box 1 Folder 3
ACTWU Activities: GEB Organizing Committee
Box 1 Folder 4
ACTWU Activities: "Labor Unity" Mailing List
Box 1 Folder 5
ACTWU Activities: Mass Media
Box 1 Folder 6
ACTWU Activities: Quality of worklife programs
Box 1 Folder 7
ACTWU Activities: Retiree Clubs (ACTOR)
Box 1 Folder 8
ACTWU Activities: Staff Development Meeting (textile division)
August 2-3, 1981
Box 1 Folder 9
ACTWU Activities: Survey of Members [folder 1 of 2]
Box 1 Folder 10
ACTWU Activities: Survey of Members [folder 2 of 2]
Box 1 Folder 11
ACTWU Activities: Organizers Reference Committee
Box 1 Folder 12
ACTWU Activities: Unemployment Aid Fund
Box 1 Folder 13
ACTWU Activities: Union Privilege Legal Services Program
Box 1 Folder 14
Average Hourly Earnings & Fringe Benefit Costs in ACTWU Bargaining Units
Box 1 Folder 15
Civil Rights Department - Cynthia McKinney Campaign
Box 1 Folder 16
Computer: ACTWU Bargaining Unit (contracts) database - users guide and programmers guide
Box 1 Folder 17
Computer: COHOP/NUFIS/Leader
Box 2 Folder 1
Computer: correspondence
Box 2 Folder 2
Computer: Elections Database - users guide
Box 2 Folder 3
Computer: Unicore - users guide
Box 2 Folder 4
Employer and employee payments toward group insurance plans
Box 2 Folder 5
Special Projects: ACTWU bargaining unit directory
February, 1993.
Box 2 Folder 6
Special Projects: ACTWU bargaining unit directory
May, 1995.
Box 2 Folder 7
Special Projects: ACTWU retail (including Busheled Bargaining Unit directory) survey
April, 1994.
Box 2 Folder 8
Special Projects (1989): Directory of ACTWU Bargaining Units
June, 1989.
Box 2 Folder 9
Special Projects: Directory of ACTWU Bargaining Units
June, 1991.
Box 2 Folder 10
Special Projects (1988): selected ACWTU contract clauses - women's issues and family concerns
November, 1988
Box 2 Folder 11
Special Projects (1988): Economic and Demographic Indicators of 42 ACTWU Industries
November 10, 1988.
Box 2 Folder 12
Special Projects (1989): Geographical pattern of employment in forty nine ACTWU industries; by state and region
January 25, 1989.
Box 2 Folder 13
Special Projects (1990): Bargaining on Women's Issues and Family Concerns (2nd edition).
Box 2 Folder 14
Special Projects (1990): Contingent Workers: Survey and contract clauses
Box 2 Folder 15
Special Projects (1990): unorganized branch plants of companies with one or more ACTWU plants
March 14, 1990.
Box 2 Folder 16
Special Projects: unorganized branch plants of companies with one or more ACTWU plants
November, 1993.
Box 2 Folder 17
Special Projects: ACTWU Bibliography
May, 1995.
Box 2 Folder 18
Study: Team licensing sportswear, Research Department, ACTWU
Box 2 Folder 19
UNITE (1998): Bargaining unit directory
Box 2 Folder 20
UNITE Activities: Alliance/GEB Advisory on organizing
Box 2 Folder 21
UNITE: Bargaining unit directory
June, 1996.
Box 2 Folder 22
UNITE: ships by state and congressional districts