Taking Home the Pyramids:
Andrew D. White, a Tourist in 19th-Century Egypt

Elvan Cobb


During the winter of 1889, Andrew Dickson White, the first president of Cornell University and a tireless pedagogue, traveled through Egypt. White was suffering from ill health that was further aggravated during a lengthy stay in London. The dry desert climate of Egypt in winter was considered to be one of the world's healthiest; therefore, White's doctors insisted that he should take a trip to Egypt to improve his health. White was accompanied by Willard Fiske, Cornell's first librarian and a close friend. By the late 19th century, with advances in transportation technologies, the invention of packaged tours, as well as a flourishing market for guidebooks, Egyptian tourism had become available to the middle-classes. Despite the explicit health reasons for White and Fiske's visit to Egypt, they participated in the standard tourist activities of the day.

White and Fiske did not leave their intellectual interests at home. White referred to architecture as his 'pet extravagance' and this passion drove him to advocate for the subject's inclusion in Cornell University's curriculum (Engst). Leveraging his influential position as Cornell's president, White was instrumental in the establishment of the architecture department in 1871 at Cornell, the second such department in the United States (Woods 68). One of his noteworthy contributions to this newly founded department was the initiation of an architectural photography collection, which formed the core of architectural history education at the school well into the 20th century. After all, photographs provided one of the only ways for students to learn about the architecture of distant places. Since many of these students went on to practice or teach architecture themselves, Cornell's selection of architectural subjects influenced what they considered to be the 'canon' of world architecture. White's Egyptian photographs, acquired during his voyage to Egypt, were integral in defining this canon--a canon that was deeply influenced by tourism.

19th-century Egyptian Tourism vis-à-vis the Experiences of White and Fiske

By the end of the 19th century when White and Fiske visited Egypt, tourism was already well-established there. Egyptian tourism catered to many different interests and tastes: one could gain better health by wintering in Egypt, visit architectural wonders or experience the exotic 'other' that Europeans and Americans were conditioned to expect in Egyptian cities. These experiences were usually mediated through tourism, especially through guidebooks and organized tours. Therefore, the tourist experience was isolated on many levels from local life. Visitors to Egypt were surrounded by other tourists, and came into contact with the local population only within a very unbalanced power dynamic as illustrated by this carriage that both isolates and identifies its American passenger.

Figure 1:F. Bonfils, Caravane ou palanquin de voyage, Egypt, ca. 1900, 15/5/3090, box 294, Andrew Dickson White Architectural Photographs Collection
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Foreigners in Egypt clearly, and sometimes strangely, demarcated their boundaries. The American flag on the conveyance depicted in this photograph not only creates an identity marker for the foreigner but also demonstrates the separation of the 'outsider' from the local populace. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, foreigners usually donned local dress in order not to attract attention; however, this changed in the later part of the century. Flying one's own flag became the custom for the Nile boats carrying visitors (Reid 75). This habit seems to have been extended to the litter of an American, documented in this Bonfils photograph included in an album held by KRMC. The photography studio La Maison Bonfils was established in Beirut, but had branches in many of the major cities in the Middle East. The photographs produced by Bonfils are considered to be some of the prime examples of orientalist photography (Khatib 244).

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

This power imbalance was perpetuated by the shifting political and military control of Egypt throughout the 19th century. Although nominally an Ottoman province, much power was held by the European countries, beginning with Napoleon's invasion in 1798. At the time that White and Fiske visited, the British had been ruling Egypt for 7 years (Cleveland and Burton 65-67). As a result, tourist regulations favored the interests of European and American travelers and collectors over the protection of local antiquities. The local governors of Egypt, the khedival authority, did try in some small way to balance this by requiring passports for entry into Egypt and initiating customs checks (Baedeker 6). Other nominal permissions were needed to provide additional and more privileged access to Egypt and its tourist attractions, which could easily be secured through consulates as evidenced by Fiske's pass.

Figure 2:Willard Fiske's pass to view Egyptian antiquities, 1889, 13/1/1165, box 18, Willard Fiske Collection
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Willard Fiske held a pass during his vacation in Egypt with A. D. White that allowed him to visit ancient sites. While the guidebooks White and Fiske carried do not mention the necessity of such a pass, this allowed them to enter the sites that would not be necessarily open to everyone as indicated by the term "fermés au enclos." Fiske paid 100 Egyptian piastres to obtain the permit, which was about the same amount as staying at a hotel for a night (Baedeker 3-5).

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

Traveling to another country, and especially to an 'oriental' one, required preparations. For White and Fiske, these preparations naturally included buying guidebooks and making inquiries in London. In a letter to his friend Fiske who was residing in Italy at the time, White wrote: "I have obeyed your orders, found out at Cook's all about their steamers + will send or bring you the whole thing printed... will bring... Baedeker's + Murray's." (White 27 November 1888) Services and products offered by these names, Cook, Murray and Baedeker, would come to define the experiences of White and Fiske along with masses of 19th-century tourists to Egypt. White would continue to purchase books on Egypt even after his arrival there, including Appleton's A Nile Journal. This book was published in America, but its availability in Cairo indicates that people continued purchasing books at their destination to provide new perspectives on what they were experiencing. It also demonstrates the existence of an English speaking clientele, substantial enough to warrant the sale of such books.

To what degree did White and Fiske participate in the common tourist experience mediated through guidebooks and packaged tours? It is hard to tell exactly how strictly they followed a set guidebook itinerary, but they certainly visited many of the typical places recommended by the books. For example, White chose to stay at the Hotel Khedivial in Alexandria. Later, he spent New Year's Eve of 1889 at the Zezine Theater to see Sarah Bernhardt, a French actress whom he had seen in France three years earlier (White 1 January 1889). White also visited important architectural attractions in Alexandria, such as Pompey's Pillar. All of these, the Khedival Hotel, the Zezine Theater, and Pompey's Pillar can be found among the recommended activities within the pages of Cook's and Baedeker's guidebooks (Cook 68, Baedeker 204).

In Cairo, White and Fiske continued to abide by their guidebooks. They frequented the Shepheard's Hotel, perhaps the most popular among American and European tourists in Cairo, which also became the subject of many tourist photographs such as this one included among Willard Fiske's personal collection of photographs.

Figure 3:Shepheard's Hotel, Cairo, ca. 1889, 13/1/1165, box 18, Willard Fiske Collection
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Shepheard's Hotel was perhaps the most popular hotel among nineteenth-century foreigners in Cairo. An 1876 volume of Cook's Tourists' Handbook for Egypt, the Nile, and the Desert included a section on this particular hotel: "Shepheard's Hotel at Cairo realizes, as nearly as possible, my ideal. It is a quadrangular building, with a garden inside and another outside. There is no need or opportunity to climb a dozen flights of stairs to your bed-room, a large number being on the ground floor, and the remainder on the floor above. The rooms are cool, spacious and convenient, without being gaunt and grand. The situation is in the midst of the most fashionable part of the town, and from the large verandah, or court, in front of the hotel, all the 'life' of Cairo may be seen..." (Cook 82-82)

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

Next they visited perhaps the most fascinating of all attractions, the Great Pyramids of Giza. In an experience that is not possible any more, tourists were allowed to climb the pyramids, as can be seen in this image from White's photography collection.

Figure 4:Abdullah Frerès, detail from Entrée de Pyramide No12, ca. 1885, 15/5/3090, box 68, Andrew Dickson White Architectural Photographs Collection
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Climbing the pyramids was one of the most exhilarating and perhaps physically challenging engagements with the architecture of Egypt. This image, found among White's photographs of Egypt, shows a group of tourists posing in front of the pyramid entrance after they had accomplished the ascent. Many such tourists left behind marks of their visit in the form of graffiti on the monument.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

White was able to climb the pyramid and he recounted his experience as such:

"I went with our whole party to the Great Pyramid, and, after lunching at the hotel there, went to the "King's Chamber," in the centre and then to the summit. It is hard work, but the excitement kept me up. I had two big Arab guides, Ibrahim and Ali, and behind me a sort of supplementary servant carrying a jar of water and lending a hand now and then. Coming down, this latter personage unrolled his turban and tied the long piece of strong white cloth about me and held the ends, so that no harm would come if I happened to stumble. But no accident occurred of any sort. The view from the top is wonderful. Going into the interior was even more difficult, and much more impressive-though that is saying much. It was hard to realize that the empty royal sarcophagus was placed there long before Abraham and Moses knew anything about Egypt." (White 1888-89: 292)

The trope of the 'Arabian Nights' was a popular way to exoticize the 'Orient' (Ahmed 156-57). Tourist books were one means by which this exoticized orient had emerged and spread to the European and American traveling public in the 19th century. According to Cook's guidebook, "Cairo...is still the city of Arabian Nights, and all who are well up in those veracious chronicles will find themselves perpetually localizing the scenes and individualizing the characters of which Scheherazade chattered so well and to such good purpose." (Cook 93) As exciting and mysterious as this Arabian Nights trope was, both the guidebooks and the visitors to Egypt had to face the modernity of the country and in some way make sense of the existence of an Egypt with railroads, post offices, wide avenues, and many other modern amenities. We see the use of the typical 19th-century conceptualizations in White's own writing as he was trying to resolve the modernity of Egypt with the exoticized Egypt:

"Nor was it only the life of old Egypt which interested me: the scenes in modern Eastern life also gave a needed change in my environment. At Cairo, in the bazaar, in contact with the daily life, which seemed like a chapter out of the "Arabian Nights," and also in the modern part of the city, in contact with the newer life of Egypt, among English and Egyptian functionaries, there was constant stimulus to fruitful trains of thought." (White 1905:433)

Unlike Karl Baedeker, Thomas Cook did not start out as a guidebook publisher. He is rather credited with bringing tourism to the middle-class consumer through the medium of packaged tours. His first organized tour to Egypt was in 1869, and included a trip to the opening of the politically important, and therefore famous, Suez Canal. After the retirement of Thomas Cook, his son John Mason Cook took over the company and expanded it even further. During his tenure, the company would start commissioning their own guidebooks (Reid 90-92).

In 1870, Cook was awarded a concession to operate passenger boats on the Nile (Reid 90-92). According to the Cook guidebook that White and Fiske carried, Thomas Cook & Son offered steamboat tours up the Nile that could be accomplished in twenty days to the First Cataract and back. An additional week could be added to cover the area up to the Second Cataract (Cook 14-26). White took a Cook steamer up the Nile as already indicated in his letter to Fiske. And, in his autobiography, he described his experience on the Nile boat:

"For our journey of five weeks upon the Nile we had what was called a 'special steamer,' the Sethi; and for our companions, some fourteen Americans and English--all on friendly terms. Every day came new subjects of thought, and nearly every waking moment came some new stimulus to observation and reflection." (White 1905, 433-34)

Another popular tourist activity was to bring home momentos of far-away places. Earlier in the century, tourists would buy and export antiquities with ease. However, by the time White and Fiske arrived in Egypt, exporting antiquities from Egypt was forbidden (Baedeker 6). Despite the regulations against exporting antiquities, White acquired a papyrus. This papyrus, which was a Book of the Dead, was intended as a donation to the University Library, and it is now in the Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection.

Figure 5:Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period, Gift of A. D. White
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Before strict enforcement of modern antiquities laws, taking ancient artifacts home from a touristic adventure was common. On March 18, 1889, soon before his departure from Egypt, A. D. White purchased a Book of the Dead scroll from L. Philip. Philip had been in the business of luxury furnishing including arabesque furnishings and gilt frames in the Ezbekiyeh quarter of Cairo, where most of Cairo's tourist amenities were located. White never intended the purchase for his personal collection, but it was directly sent to Cornell as a donation to the University Library.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

The receipt of the purchase, found among White's papers, demonstrates that White ended up paying over 600 Francs for the artifact (Philip 18 March 1889). A letter from White published in the Cornell Era from 1889 shows his excitement about the purchase:


Even in Egypt President White has not forgotten Cornell. The following letter, received some days ago by President Adams, explains itself. Cairo, Egypt, March 18th, 1889. Charles Kendall Adams, LLD., President of Cornell University: My dear friend. I forward this day, as a gift to the University Library, a Papyrus of much interest found about two years since in the tomb of a priest of the Ptolemaic period. It represents certain chapters of the "Book of the Dead," is beautifully executed, perfectly preserved, and a complete document in every respect. The inscriptions are partly Hieroglyphic, partly Hieratic; and in the midst of them are very striking representations a religious sort -the most remarkable being the Last Judgment of the Soul before Isis and Osiris. (White 18 March 1889)

Despite the debut of the personal Kodak camera during the later part of the century, most tourists did not own a camera. White's son Frederick had sent him an advertisement of a Kodak in a letter written prior to White's trip to Egypt, suggesting that a personal camera might be useful:

"I enclose adv. of Kodak camera. It is about the size of a brick and makes circular photos 2 ½ in. diam. A good thing for you to take on your eastern trip...It struck me that you might be very anxious to have one and if you want it I will send one by express." (White 18 December 1888)

Despite his son's generous offer, White undertook his trip without a personal camera, depending instead on the availability of commercial photographs.

Photography studios or depots were part of the information set provided by guidebooks. The Baedeker guide gave addresses of several photography studios, including the establishment of Pascal Sebah, one frequented by White and Fiske. In Cairo, according to Baedeker, ". among the numerous photographs of Egyptian landscapes and temples the best are those by Sebah of Constantinople, which may be purchased at his depot, adjoining the French consulate in Ezbekiyeh or at Kauffmann's." (Baedeker 235) Sebah's photographs would complement White's interest in architecture and present him with a mode to share his appreciation with his students and family in Ithaca.

Egyptian Architecture, Egyptian Photographs

White's interest in architecture was an important factor shaping his encounters in Egypt, where he admired not only the ancient Pharaonic monuments but also the Islamic and the modern architecture of the country. In an account of his travels, published in The Cornell Magazine, a monthly student publication at Cornell, White mentioned that:

"Next to the human beings, the architecture interests me most. I never dreamed that it could be so really beautiful in material and style. Some of the entrances to mosques which I saw this morning, and especially one or two minarets, almost equalled anything in Gothic art in richness of material and beauty of form and detail; and that, for me, is saying a great deal." (White April 1889, 289)

Considering this passion for buildings, architecture was the subject of almost all of the photographs White purchased in Egypt. Therefore, White frequented photography studios specializing in architectural photography, such as Abdullah Frerès in addition to Sebah, rather than visiting studios focusing on other subjects such as ethnography.

Along with the demand created by tourists that helped shape the memento photograph market in Egypt, photographers like Sebah were also able to influence what was included in each image. Images such as this one, showing a group of tourists climbing a pyramid, were their artistic creation despite the driving forces of the tourist market for such images.

Figure 6:Abdullah Frerès, Ascension de Pyramide No8, ca. 1885, 13/1/1165, box 18, Willard Fiske Collection
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Climbing up the pyramids of Egypt was a physically challenging act, most often requiring hired help. The challenge was even more intense for the women who had to dress in restricting clothing. However, many women climbed the pyramids and would purchase ready-made images such as this one in order to remember their accomplishment. This type of a bodily engagement between the tourist and the locals complicated the power dynamics of the late-nineteenth century. While the nineteenth-century tourists were able to tap into the local resources for their leisure, they were also emerging as physically weak in comparison to the Egyptians. The question of gender and physical closeness of the tourist female with local males would have created an unavoidable breach of nineteenth-century etiquette of gender and race relationships.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

Therefore, their agency in establishing what was to be seen outside of Egypt, was significant. However, assigning full agency to the photographer would not be sufficient in the case of Egyptian photography. Guidebooks were mediators of what most tourists like White and Fiske observed in Egypt and therefore, these publications promoted certain attractions over others. If there was more interest in an attraction, an increased number of its photographs would be sold. Therefore, it is apt to give a share of the agency to these books as well.

White's intentional selection of Egyptian photographs was undoubtedly influenced by his own touristic experiences. After all, he would have wanted his students to experience what he had himself appreciated. Perhaps it is obvious that White would and should purchase photographs of the Giza Pyramids. Perhaps not so obvious are a number of photographs depicting the Park and Palace of Gezireh, to which the Baedeker's guide allotted several pages of text as well as plans (Baedeker 328-29). In addition, the Mosque of Al-Azhar, the Mosque of Muhammed Ali, and EdFou (an ancient Egyptian city with a temple to the god Horus) are all represented in the photographs that White purchased, and they may not be as obvious choices as the pyramids. However, all of these places occupy several pages in the guidebooks of the time, many of them illustrated with plans prompting White to visit these places. On the other hand, one is hard pressed to find images of places among White's photographs that were not included in the guidebooks. While there are several street scenes without exact identifiers, the 'Arab street experience' was also part and parcel of the guidebook literature and their existence can be easily understood.

White had been collecting photographs throughout his earlier travels. By the time White went to Egypt, the number of photographs in the collection had already reached the thousands. In a letter he wrote to President Charles Kendall Adams of Cornell University published in the Cornell Era, White underscored his cognizance of the significance of the photographs he sent from Egypt:

"I have also sent to the University a collection of about one hundred and forty large photographs to illustrate Ancient and Modern Egyptian Art (especially architecture) and Life; and with these a collection of the more recent and valuable books upon Egypt, which will, I trust, form a useful supplement to the noble works on that subject which the University already possesses." (White 18 March 1889)

Therefore, it is possible to say that through the agency of the photographers, guidebooks and himself, White managed to collect a representative, but subjective, sample of Egyptian architecture in photographs. His selection of images became what generations of Cornellians would see as demonstrative of Egyptian architecture.

However, collecting photographs was not enough to ensure their usefulness. This could only be accomplished through their accessibility. White had made arrangements to reserve space in McGraw Hall, one of the oldest and most prominent buildings on campus as an exhibition space for the photographs he had collected for Cornell's fledgling Department of Architecture.

Figure 7:George S. Bliss (Class of 1890), McGraw Hall Museum, 1885.Albumen Print Photograph. Archives Photograph Collection. 13/6/2497.05323
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The photographs A. D. White sent back from Egypt were mounted and displayed on the third level of McGraw Hall in cabinets. This central location allowed access not only to architecture students but to the whole Cornell community. The juxtaposition of photographs with Cornell's Museum of Natural History, including an extensive mineral collection, demonstrates the significance assigned to these photographs. Historian Barry Bergdoll mentioned the following while discussing a 1932 exhibit of architectural photographs at the Museum of Modern Art in New York: "I told my students that it's very important for me to dramatize for you a sense of the novelty of simply acquiring black and white photographs of these far flung buildings, and being able to put them together in one room." (McGetrick 50) Bergdoll's emphasis on the novelty of an easily accessible architectural photography collection even in the 1930s crystallizes the importance of White's endeavor to provide such a collection to the Cornell community in the 1870s and 1880s.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

In an earlier letter he wrote from Florence on May 17, 1886 to President Adams, White expressed his desire to make the photographs accessible to students:

"I send you...about 300 photographs...of important public buildings in England, France and Italy. The same to be held as a gift to the University for the purposes of the department of architecture and the general instruction of the students, under the agreement already made that the entire collection shall be preserved in the galleries reserved for that purpose..." (A. D. White Project)

"I send you...about 300 photographs...of important public buildings in England, France and Italy. The same to be held as a gift to the University for the purposes of the department of architecture and the general instruction of the students, under the agreement already made that the entire collection shall be preserved in the galleries reserved for that purpose..." (A. D. White Project)

"Have [the photographs] put instantly into the cases...I have a natural wish that all students and the friends of the University shall see in these an 'outward & visible sign' of my state of 'inward & spiritual grace,' which is a continual devotion to the University which time & distance & nominal separation only make stronger...I wish the returning students to see those empty cases filled with these beautiful new things." (A. D. White Project)

It is possible to read these passages as a conscious creation of a canon, even though White does not say so openly. The collection and exhibition of architectural photographs involved judgments about what needed to be seen by the Cornell community.

The Collection in Action

The history of architecture has always been an important component of architectural education at Cornell. The University's printed catalogue, called the Cornell Register, records in 1882 that architecture students learned about the history of architecture over the course of five semesters. The classes were entitled: "Egyptian, Greek, and Roman architecture", "Byzantine and Romanesque architecture", "Gothic architecture", "Renaissance architecture", and "Modern architecture" (Cornell Register 1882-83, 44). The existence of a course on Egyptian, Greek, and Roman architecture would have necessitated teaching aids in the form of drawings and models, as well as photographs. White would supply this last item for Egypt and many other places he had visited.

The 1888-89 catalogue, published the same year that White and Fiske traveled to Egypt, describes the methods used to teach architectural history:

"The lectures are illustrated by photographs, engravings, drawings, casts and models, of which the supply for the use of the department is very large. A lantern of the most approved pattern for the purpose of throwing architectural views upon a screen before the class is in constant readiness for the use of the lecturer." (Cornell Register 1888-89, 76)

It is clear that the photographic collection was perceived as a necessity for architectural education. Lantern slides, which were an extension of photographic imaging since the mid-1850s, were also used to project images of architecture allowing the photographs to be consumed in a new manner. The 1887-88 Cornell Register included a description of the materials available for the study of architecture:

"THE ARCHITECTURAL COLLECTION contains over two thousand photographic prints, the most of which are of large size; several hundred drawings; and about two hundred models in stone and wood. These are all designed to illustrate the constructive forms and peculiarities of the different styles of architecture. These, as well as the White Architectural Library - containing over one thousand volumes - are all freely accessible to the student of architecture." (Cornell Register 1887-88, 38)

A later catalogue from 1889-1900 emphasizes that architecture students were expected to be taking advantage of these resources as they worked not only for their studies in architectural history but for their design classes as well: "the students have free and unhampered access to books, plates and photographs, and are encouraged and urged to use the best of the material for direct reference in the drafting rooms." (Cornell Register 1889-1900, 269)

The centrality of the architectural collection with its emphasis on architectural photography set the precedent for learning architectural history at Cornell for many years. Its existence influenced many other Cornellians to collect additional photographs during their own travels to distant places. William Herbert Schuchardt may be one of the best examples of White's ability to instill a lasting interest in Egyptian architecture through his photography collection. Schuchardt graduated from Cornell's architecture department in 1895. He would have studied with the photographs that White had just brought back from Egypt. Following his graduation from Cornell, Schuchardt spent a year traveling. Along the way, he purchased dozens of photographs depicting Egyptian architecture. He briefly returned to Cornell to teach in 1926, and offered the first course in city planning in 1928. He donated his photographs to the University and thus increased the holdings of the White collection on Egypt.

Like Schuchardt, Cornellians would continue to travel to Egypt and, more significantly, continue to purchase and bring back commercially produced photographs of that land, even after the increased use of personal cameras. Some prime examples of this continued collecting include a 1902 Bonfils album with more than 200 Egyptian scenes and a 1914 photograph of the Temple Complex at Luxor by unknown donors. Because many Cornellians contributed to the expansion of the architectural photography collection by following in White's footsteps, their acquisition of photographs became a way to share their touristic experiences. In this way, the architectural photography collection at Cornell became a communal affair.

In 1998, the collection entered the care of Kroch Library's Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection. Through a digitization project, more than a thousand photographs of the A. D. White Architectural Photography Collection is now available on the internet, expanding its impact well beyond Cornell. This collection can be viewed online at: http://cidc.library.cornell.edu/adw/adw.asp


Materials Housed in KRMC, Cornell University Library:

Appleton, Thomas Gold. A Nile Journal,. Boston: Roberts Bros., 1876.

Baedeker, Karl, ed. Egypt: Handbook for Travellers. Leipsic: K. Baedeker, 1885.

Cook, Thomas, ed. Cook's Tourists' Handbook for Egypt, the Nile, and the Desert. London: T. Cook & Son [etc.], 1888.

The Cornell University Register. Ithaca, NY, 1882-83.

The Cornell University Register. Ithaca, NY, 1887-88.

The Cornell University Register. Ithaca, NY, 1888-89.

The Cornell University Register. Ithaca, NY, 1889-1900.

Philip, L. Receipt to A. D. White. 18 March 1889. 01-02-02. Box 57. Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection (KRMC), Cornell University Library.

White, A. D. Letter to Willard Fiske. 27 November 1888. 01/02/02. Box 57. Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection (KRMC), Cornell University Library.

White, A. D. Diary. 1 January 1889. 01/02/02. Box 149. Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection (KRMC), Cornell University Library.

White, A. D. Letter to Charles Kendall Adams. 18 March 1889. Published as "Egyptian Gifts From Ex-President White," Cornell Era, 1888-89. Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection (KRMC), Cornell University Library.http://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/22167

White, A. D. "President White in Egypt." Cornell Magazine. Ithaca, NY, April 1889.http://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/22199

White, A. D. Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White ... New York: Century, 1905.

White, F. Letter to A. D. White. 18 December 1888. 01/02/02. Box 57. Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collection (KRMC), Cornell University Library.

Secondary Sources:

Ahmed, Farouk H. "Nineteenth Century Cairo: A Dual City." Ed. Nezar AlSayyad, Irene A. Bierman, and Nasser O. Rabbat. Making Cairo Medieval. Lanham, Md.: Lexington, 2005.

Arnold, Dana. "The Authority of the Author: Biography and the Reconstruction of the Canon." In Reading Architectural History, edited by Dana Arnold. London: Routledge, 2002.

Cleveland, William L, and Martin P. Bunton. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press, 2009.

Gregory, Derek. "Emperors of the Gaze: Photographic Practices and Production of Space in Egypt, 1839-1914." Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination. Ed. Joan M. Schwartz and James R. Ryan. London: I.B. Tauris, 2003.

Khatib, Hisham. Palestine and Egypt under the Ottomans: Paintings, Books, Photographs, Maps and Manuscripts. London: Tauris Parke, 2003.

McGetrick, Brendan. "Barry Bergdoll." Who Is Architecture?: Conversations on the Borders of Building. Hong Kong: Timezone 8/ Domus, 2010.

Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Reid, Donald M. Whose Pharaohs?: Archaeology, Museums, and Egyptian National Identity from Napoleon to World War I. Berkeley: University of California, 2002.

Woods, Mary N. From Craft to Profession: the Practice of Architecture in Nineteenth-century America. Berkeley: University of California, 1999.

Pertinent WWW Resources:

Engst, Elaine D. "History of AAP 2." Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections. KRMC.http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/Aap-exhibit/AAP2.html

A. D. White Project, "A. D. White Photographs, History of the Collection," Cornell Institute for Digital Collections, April 14, 2005.http://cidc.library.cornell.edu/adw/history/adwhistory.htm

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