Photography at the World's Fairs:
Constructing 'Official' Images

Annie Schentag

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, world's fairs dominated the cultural imagination of American and European citizens in nearly every aspect of consumer society. The mass production and distribution of souvenir photographs of the fairs' architecture reveals the essential role of expositions in creatively constructing and controlling idealized images of themselves, as well as national and local identities. At several expositions, official photographers were assigned to craft and convey a specific public image, while also heavily restricting and preventing amateur photographers from creating divergent images. These restrictions and official photographs reflect the controlled advertising image that tourists received in souvenir collections. These photographs not only affected the perception of architecture for fairgoers and armchair travelers alike, but they also continue to act as touchstones of memory in our archives today. The photographs in the Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections (KRMC) reveal the influence of these images on the construction of collective memory, the profession of architectural photography, and common touristic practices for subsequent generations.

Cornell's Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections (KRMC) has a particularly strong collection of photographic souvenirs of the fairs, as well as a smattering of guidebooks, programs and other ephemera. However, the photographs at the KRMC reflect the predominance of mass distributed souvenirs rather than amateur photographs, resulting in several individual collections that largely include the same official images. James Gilbert, a prominent scholar on world's fairs, discusses the influence of these images on the historiography of these expositions:

To the present day observer looking back on this period of photographic history, the tendency is to believe that Arnold's is the only perspective and that he and the fair administration successfully shaped how visitors saw and remembered the fair and how the rest of the public imagined it....And so we are left with a view of the fair that was intended by those who planned the Exposition. (Gilbert 1993, 130)

In this way, the composition of the KRMC mirrors the presence of officially produced photographs in personal collections, indicating the thoroughly pervasive nature of endorsed images. The presence of these mass-produced photographs demonstrates the strong influence of a small group of official photographers in shaping the ways of seeing architecture, both through tourism and photography. Therefore, the photographs in the KRMC provide an excellent opportunity for examining these images not as literal reproductions of the fairs, but as evidence of the subjective methods of control used by fair administrators, and their official photographers, in shaping the public perception of the expositions and touristic ways of seeing, both during and after the fairs.

Tourism at the Expositions

World's fairs were highly constructed ordeals that attempted to represent the entire world in a single fairground, largely reflecting the values of their own time. The fairs were an integral aspect of Industrial-era culture, and they pervaded western society with advertisements and images that resulted in highly attended fairs, as well as reaching those who could not attend the fair. At a time when the national population was around 63 million, 27 million tourist tickets were sold to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (Graff 222). The fairs were not only hugely popular, but they also created a massive spectacle, influencing touristic rituals both within and outside the fairs.

Figure 21:Charles Dudley Arnold, "The Triumphal Bridge Illuminated" in Official Views of the Pan American Exposition, Buffalo 1901
[zoom] | View PDF

This image typifies C.D. Arnold's photographic style, which primarily features the monumental qualities of architecture. By providing an ideal perspective and carefully controlled composition, Arnold emphasizes the classical proportions and sculptural attributes of architecture, often excluding the presence of crowds or other distractions. This photograph depicts the bridge at night, not only celebrating the technological advancements of electricity at the fair, but also demonstrating Arnold's technical prowess in capturing a picturesque night image. Nighttime viewings of architecture became increasingly popular touristic experiences during and after the fairs, due in part to the impact of Arnold's photographs on the cultural imagination during the Industrial era.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

Although the fairs had a lasting influence on Western culture and touristic practices, the actual expositions were temporary affairs, usually lasting no longer than six months. The fascination that accompanied these spectacles coincided with "an awareness that it would all soon vanish, that its beauty were the things of just a day....and then they would be left with only their memories, souvenirs and pictures" (Harris 3-4). The simultaneous sense of awe and nostalgia were integral to the development of souvenir photograph collections, which were created, in part, to reverse this sense of impermanence that accompanied the quick disappearance of the fairs. By providing images of the fairs, these publications ensured that these fleeting events would remain forever present in cultural history, thereby making a permanent mark on the collective memory of the fairs.

One such publication in the KRMC, The Parisian Dream City (1900), marketed itself as a method with which to combat the swift mortality of the event. Like many photographic collections, this publication was a serial magazine of images available to monthly subscribers. On the first page of every issue, the author referred to the "fleeting show planned for transient pleasure," which would "fade and vanish with the closing of the exposition." This was seen as sad, unless, however, one subscribed to the publication, which would, "catch the accurate reflection of every one of these modern endeavors and transmit them to posterity in a series of photographic reproductions" (Mayer 1). Therefore, this photographic collection, like many others, marketed itself as an authoritative reproduction of the fair, making this temporary event permanently available to fairgoers and distant viewers alike.

The use of photography in these publications echoes the desire to freeze time before a moment disappears. For the world's fairs, where a sense of brevity was so present, "photography was a campaign to capture in more permanent media and render memorable that which was as ephemeral as the reflection of substance in water" (Lovell 53). As an artistic medium that was a contemporary technological revelation at the time, photography provided a seemingly magical method of capturing an instantaneous moment during an era of rapidly advancing change and developments. The very existence of these souvenir photographs reveals a cultural urge to perpetuate the fairs into a more pervasive historical moment, lasting long after the fair has been physically dismantled.

Photography and tourism were explicitly intertwined at the world's fairs, with resulting effects that persisted long after the era of the fairs. Souvenir photograph collections impacted not only the perception of fairs, but they have also played a fundamental role in touristic ways of seeing at large. The images in these collections created "visual expectations of Americans as they encountered their nation and the rest of the world through travel or, more likely, through consumption of these visual materials" (Rydell 1989, 118). Tourism became a fundamental method of interpreting and constructing identity during the emergence of the modern age. The era of the expositions was a significant moment in modern tourism, and thus "the tourists to the Fair may have been trying to understand themselves as modern subjects in the midst of a rapidly changing world" (Graff 223). Fair souvenirs served as an extension of, or substitution for, travel, reflecting and perpetuating a broader cultural tradition of using tourism as a way of understanding oneself and modernity, as Dean MacCannell has suggested (3). Therefore, these "published images shaped expectations and affected experience itself, refiguring what had been seen, depicting what should have been seen, or offering an ideal perspective that only the photographer could record" (Gilbert 2009, 102). In this way, an examination of these souvenir photographs reveals the manner in which these images influenced touristic ways of looking that extended far beyond the fairs, by consistently editing what should be seen and how the tourist should see.

Framing the Public Image of the Fairs

Photography became not only the method of depicting, but also more importantly, the method of constructing the publicized 'image' of the fairs. Fair administrations, particularly at the Chicago Exposition, went to great lengths to control the fair's publicity through photographs, in order to "shape public perceptions of the Fair, attract attention and visitors through publicity, and leave a lasting legacy of meaning for future recollection through its meticulous record-keeping and archival preservation" (Gilbert 2009, 37). Administrators demonstrated their aim to craft a specific public perception of the fair, reaching beyond the fair's completion, by overseeing both the distribution of photographs in advertisements and souvenir collections, as well as the overall message that would be conveyed in fair images.

Figure 22:Neurdien Brothers, view of the Eiffel Tower and Exposition Universelle, Paris 1889, Photograph album
[zoom] | View PDF

This iconic view uses a bird's eye perspective to celebrate the grandeur of the Exposition, emphasizing the abstract orderliness of the fairgrounds with a highly organized composition. Overarching views such as this one were popularized during the fairs, influencing not only architectural photography styles but also the tourist practice of seeing cities from above. The bottom right corner of this photograph, which is included in a rare personal photograph album, features the mark "N.D.," indicating the image is an official print by the famous Neurdien Brothers.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

In an effort to establish control over images of the exposition, Chicago's fair administrators gave detailed legal rights to a singular enterprise as the sole official photographer of the fair. After approving of his photographs of the fair's construction, the administration granted C.D. Arnold and his partner, Harlow D Higginbotham, an exclusive right to commercial photography inside the grounds. Higginbotham, the son of the President of the Exposition's Board of Directors, was largely granted the title in name only, whereas Arnold quickly became known as the true official photographer. Arnold's designation was accompanied by a long list of benefits: $2000, copyright and commission on all images, the ability to sell any photographs to guidebooks, journals or newspapers, the right to fill separate orders from journalists or businesses who had displays on the fairgrounds, as well as the opportunity for further income by filling any special orders placed by visitors to the fair (Gilbert 1993, 106-107).

C.D. Arnold served as the official photographer for not only the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 but also for Buffalo's Pan American Exposition in 1901, thereby leaving a lasting legacy on the public perception of world's fairs, architectural photography and tourism. Arnold's photographs were extensive, controlled and expensive, far more so than previous official photographers at other expositions, such as Paris' Exposition Universelle. He produced platinum prints of his images, which was an expensive technology that was associated with artists rather than journalists, which underscored his belief that the photographs he produced were fine art. A souvenir image by C.D. Arnold could range from 30 cents, for an 8" x 10" print, to $1.50, for a 12" x 14" print, at a time when the average income was about 11 dollars a week (Jones 375-376). In addition, if a visitor wanted an image of an object that was not part of any of Arnold's popularly available photographs, they could specially commission shots for $5, 10 times the 50 cent price of fair admission (Hales 1993, 23). With such rare, pervasive access to these resources and the fairgrounds, Arnold effectively established a monopoly from which he heavily profited, making his photographs seem synonymous with the fair itself.

In relation to the goals of the fair administrations, Arnold was an ideal choice of photographer, as his images celebrate architecture in a manner that perfects the art of advertising the Expositions. Both in Chicago and in Buffalo, his photographs feature a world of architecture that is monumentalized by its classical proportions and scale. The utopic nature of the fair, as Hales reflects, "survived best not in reality but in myth- a myth that reached its clearest, most perfect, and most persuasive embodiment in the pictures of Charles Dudley Arnold" (1993, 48). The majority of his images feature buildings as the primary subject, and his use of perspective reiterated his interest in architecture by "reducing the surroundings to the role of a setting" (Gilbert 1993, 116). Many of his images are framed in the foreground, often with bodies of water, fountains or pathways leading the viewer's eye towards the featured architectural subject matter. Arnold also captured photographs of impossible views, from places such as the roofs of buildings, often inaccessible to the average fairgoer. With these idealized perspectives, Arnold photographically imagined the architecture of the fairs as pure objects that existed outside the chaos of human spectacle of the Exposition's reality, thus depicting the Fair in an impossible perfect form. Arnold's use of bird's eye perspectives echoed a larger developing trend in architectural photography, which thereby influenced touristic experience. Ogata states, "By 1889, when visitors ascended the Eiffel Tower to look down on the city of Paris, viewing the exposition from above had become a quintessential experience of fair tourism" (74). Many of Arnold's photographs, as well as Figure 22, utilize this perspective that directly encouraged tourists to climb to great heights to see an overarching view of the city. By illustrating the fair from a privileged perspective that only he could access, Arnold's images reflect his control over the architectural scene, just as the administration had control over the distribution and access to the scenes themselves.

Arnold's frequent omission of people in his photographs reinforces his interest in the monumental qualities of architecture, rather than in the chaotic spectacle of the fairs. By taking the photographs early in the day, before the crowds arrived, Arnold intentionally avoided including people in his images, aside from an occasional human figure who was used solely to provide a sense of scale to the architecture. This technique "lent a sense of quiet and decorum, an aesthetic order to what in reality were bustling thoroughfares and crowded exhibits, made so by the disorderly meandering of huge crowds of visitors" (Ogata 74). Although the noisy crowds would likely have been a predominant experience of the fairs to a visitor, Arnold's photographs, which were used largely to remember the fair by those visitors, included none of those theatrical crowds.

Figure 23:F. Dundas Todd, frontispiece in World's Fair through a Camera: Snapshots by an Artist, Chicago World's Columbian Exposition, 1893
[zoom] | View PDF

At a time when amateur photography clubs were booming, world's fairs became increasingly restrictive in permitting amateurs to photograph inside the fairgrounds. The growing population of amateur photographers opposed the official photographer, C.D. Arnold, and his monopoly at the Chicago fair. The photographs produced by amateurs, however, are strikingly similar in style, subject matter, and composition to the official photographer's images. As can be seen in this frontispiece, these amateur images, like Arnold's, idealize architecture with an emphasis on scale and proportion rather than the spectacle of chaos. These similarities between amateur and official images demonstrate the large influence of publicized images on not only photographic styles, but also on the collective perception of the fairs.

Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections
Cornell University Library

The quiet emptiness of these photographs suggest not only Arnold's emphasis on the pristine, majestic qualities of architecture, but also on his intense control over the public understanding of what tourists should value at the fair. Arnold avoided crowds because they "would draw the eye away from the realm of metaphor and declamation suggested in the vehicle of architecture ...crowds could suggest only disorder, diversity, multiplicity of intent, and variant points of view" (Lovell 46). By eliminating crowds from his images, Arnold ensured the singular authority of his own perspective, on behalf of the fair administration. Instead of the uncontrolled spectacle of chaos, the images evoked "a stage set, a clean, finished artifice, at once a cultural index and a cultural agent, inhabited, by and large, in imagination rather than in reality" (Lovell 46). In this way, these images suggest Arnold's emphasis on architecture, and architecture alone, as the destination for tourists at the fair, thus shaping their experience and perceptions of the primary objects of value to seek out amidst the crowds.

Many of Arnold's photographs not only emphasize architecture, but also celebrate the advancement of technology. He produced several night photographs, at both the Chicago and the Buffalo fairs, which featured the exposition grounds illuminated by thousands of lights. The practice of visiting the grounds at night was a relatively new tourist phenomenon, one which "overwhelmed the public, while entertaining them in great numbers and processing all of them into believers in and eventually enthusiastic consumers of the fruits of evolving technology of all sorts" (Champa 20). As a result of their popularity at the fairs, night visitations became a common touristic practice. Today, "the awe inspiring moment at dusk, when all lights are switched on simultaneously, has turned into a choreographed ritual, eagerly awaited by visitors" (Neumann 10). The touristic experience of viewing architecture, and their light displays, at night is partially rooted in the presence of dramatic illuminations at these Industrial-era expositions.

Arnold's night photographs played a large role in popularizing these light displays, demonstrating not only his broad influence but also his technical prowess as a photographer. "The Triumphal Bridge Illuminated" (fig. 21), was taken at the Pan American Exposition in 1901, celebrating electricity as a central feature of the Buffalo fair. The Exposition grounds were lit from electricity generated and transmitted from a record-breaking distance of 25 miles away at Niagara Falls, thereby attracting millions of visitors who came to marvel at these technological advancements. By capturing this nighttime view, Arnold not only featured the supremacy of American technological developments, but also demonstrated his own confidence and technical ability as a photographer. Taking photographs at night was an incredibly difficult task at the time, one that required excellent skill and expensive equipment. In this image, Arnold not only captures the correct exposure, but also manages to feature the most picturesque aspects of the scene, using water to blur the line between reality and fantasy by presenting the reflection of the lights. In this way, Arnold not only encouraged the tourist experience of night viewing, but also emphasized the improvements of both electrical and photographic technology.

The Amateur's Eye

Arnold's monopolistic control over the exclusive ability to photograph extensively at the fairs, and thus his sole influence on the perception of the fairs, raised significant opposition from amateur photographers. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a large population of amateur photographers was emerging alongside the popularity of the world's fairs. As photographic technology developed, producing smaller, more inexpensive cameras and faster production times, photography became available to a broader audience. At the time of the World's Columbian Exposition, there were "about sixty societies and clubs in the United States" (Felix 409), and roughly "100,000 amateur photographers in the United States at the time, most of them affluent enough to go to the fair" (Gilbert 1993, 123). Despite these relatively large numbers, only about "2000 amateur permits were sold during the duration of the Chicago fair" (Gilbert 1993, 123). This low percentage of amateurs at the Chicago fair was a direct result of the strict regulations put in place by fair administrators, in order to curb the production of images that were alternative to Arnold's officially sanctioned photographs.

The Paris Exposition Universelle set the precedent for limitations in 1889, and many of the official photographs from that fair reflect a similar compositional quality to Arnold's images. In Paris, "amateurs and professionals alike paid an entrance fee for their cameras, but no monopoly was granted to a single firm, and no limit on camera size" (Gilbert 1993, 112). In Paris, there were two major photographic firms, that of Marius Bar and that of the Neurdien Brothers. A rare personal photo album in the Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections contains 99 prints by the Neurdien Brothers at the 1889 Exposition. Photographs such as Figure 22 demonstrate the stylistic similarities between these official photographers and C.D. Arnold. This image, which precedes Arnold's photographs, utilizes a bird's eye perspective to emphasize, like Arnold, the monumental qualities of architecture and the orderliness of the fair. Like many of Arnold's images, this photograph demonstrates an impossible view that celebrates the triumph of architecture as a symbol of Western progress.

While the effort to control images did not originate at the Chicago fair, the World's Columbian Exposition set the strictest regulations of the fairs. They effectively reduced the existence of unofficial photographs by placing hefty fees on amateur photographers, as well as limiting the size of both their cameras and their photographs. A fee of $2 a day (4 times the cost of admission) was required in order to bring a small hand held camera into the fairgrounds, with an additional $1 cost for permission to photograph the Street in Cairo on the Midway. Accompanying this cost, visitors were required to sign a release form stating they would not use any images for commercial or public use. If a visitor did not have a camera, small, tourist oriented Kodak cameras were available to rent for $2 a day, but no tripods were allowed, and the images produced could be no larger than 4" x 5" (Gilbert 1993, 123). Producing any images in this condition would have been immensely difficult, as there were no darkroom facilities available on the grounds. However, some nearby hotels aimed at subverting this policy and attracting amateurs, such as the South Shore Hotel, by providing makeshift darkrooms for their guests.

These regulations were designed to prevent high quality images from being produced and circulated, which had the potential, as alternative perspectives, to subvert the administration's message in Arnold's carefully controlled photographs. The nature of these restrictions were aimed, "not so much at the causal tourist but at the amateur photographer whose equipment might well demand a tripod to steady a large camera with slow film" (Gilbert 1993, 23). The lack of darkrooms and proper equipment prevented amateurs from taking quality photographs, but would not have largely concerned the average tourist who wanted to take an informal snapshot. Today, however, few of these purely touristic photographs exist, and the image of the world's fairs remain largely as it was put forth by the administration through official photographs.

In response to these regulations, amateur photographers responded with a battle against the administration, largely through publications central to the amateur community. American Amateur Photography, a magazine led by Alfred Steiglitz at the time, repeatedly sent letters of protest demanding a change in the rules, effectively "arousing its own miniature storm of pupils and progressivist protest" (Hales 1989, 255). In the end, the administration did not budge much, although the protests did result in the hiring of a well known landscape photographer, William Henry Jackson, to produce 100 11" X 14" images of fair as it closed. Jackson's photographs, however, did not comply with the administrations Arnold-esque image, and the poignant photos of construction workers and debris that he created were never produced, at least not without significant editorial alterations (Hales 1989, 255).

This miniature battle over the control of alternative visions reveals more about the fair administration's urge to control the fair's image than it does about the photographers themselves. Harris reflects, "Fair officials, with their careful choice of official photographers and licenses for the cameras of individual visitors, acknowledged just how critical the control of images actually was" (4). The existence of this controversy demonstrates the importance placed on photography as the primary creator of perception during these massive cultural events. The administrative desire to control the public image indicates that world's fairs can be seen as "spectacles of contestation in which oppos¬ing groups and interests battle to control the production, representation and consump¬tion of spectacular imagery and symbols" (Gotham 200). In this way, exposition photographs can be utilized from a historiographical perspective, as they reveal the concepts and agendas that contribute to the creative construction and production of public notions of tourism, photography and architecture that persist into this day.

Despite these contested regulations, most amateur photographs of the fair do not significantly differ from Arnold's, thus revealing the profound impact of his images on the photographic tradition. Stylistically, many amateur images use compositional techniques that are similar to Arnold's dictum. The World's Fair through a Camera: Snapshots by an Artist, is a rare souvenir collection in the KRMC, featuring amateur photographs taken by F. Dundas Todd at the Chicago Exposition. Due to the heavy restrictions at the fair, few collections of amateur images exist, making this one an incredible insight into the photographic style of these depictions. These images, seen in Figure 23, feature architecture with a sense of monumentality and an emphasis on pure, uninterrupted form that echoes Arnold's characteristic style. These stylistic similarities were not confined to this particular album, as Gilbert states, "Despite the objections to stringent rules and an undercurrent of criticism of Arnold's vision, there is considerable evidence that the monumental and picturesque were also principles of the amateur aesthetic code" (1993, 119). Therefore, although the amateurs attempted to combat Arnold's monopolistic control, they were largely unable to escape the pervasive impact of his aesthetic style on their own ways of seeing.

The Souvenir: A Miniature Trip through the Fair

Photographs shaped both the touristic expectations and experiences of the fair, often influencing the touristic perception of architecture. Even before the fair opened, the images in these advertising publications "created expectations of a visual spectacle. It was difficult, if not impossible...to avoid encountering an image of the fair before visiting" (Gilbert 1993, 102). Having seen images of these sites prior to their presence at the fairground, tourists "approached buildings and settings had to some extent already become familiar" (Gilbert 1993, 102). Therefore, fairgoers entered the grounds with preconceived notions about the 'iconic' sites at the fair, as it had been constructed for them through Arnold's photographs and the fair administration. This experience may have been similar to the notion of the tourist desire to see the Eiffel tower while in Paris, which Dean MacCannell describes as sight-marker transformations and recognition (121). The fairs, however, were temporary 'cities', and thus this touristic practice of site recognition at a place that exists only briefly demonstrates the immense influence of advertising images, such as Arnold's photographs, in constructing the perception of these places, both in anticipation of and during the fair.

Official photographs constructed the perception of the fairs for not only fairgoers, but also for those who never attended the fairs. Particularly for those who did not travel to the fairs, the advertising images and photographs shaped the experience of these events, thoroughly constructing their understanding of the value of the expositions. Souvenir collections were collected not only by fairgoers who wanted to remember their trip, but also from a distance in the form of serial photographic magazines. In this way, "These sources stand as the literary equivalents of the exhibitions themselves" (Rydell 1992, 55). Souvenir publications were aware of their vicarious role. As one publication in the KRMC indicated, "For those who go, this is the beautiful souvenir for memory. For those who don't, it will be the exposition itself, with more essential value than an actual visit would have imparted" (Mayer 1). By turning the pages, distant viewers could imagine a trip through the fair, traveling from one building to the next, with no distractions from the crowds, as very few people were present in Arnold's photographs. Therefore, these collections were used to "substitute for experience itself" (Gilbert 2009, 102). A trip through the souvenir collection was often used to substitute for a physical visit, using a careful layout to guide an armchair traveler through the exposition.

Expositions provide a particularly fascinating example of how souvenirs are used to miniaturize a carefully constructed image of the events at the fairs. Because world's fairs were, as Benjamin said, "a city, indeed a world in miniature" (146), the souvenir mirrors the function of the fairs themselves. Just as the fair distilled the world down to a single place, photographs and their placement in souvenir collections craft a highly edited, distilled and miniature version of the fair. By miniaturizing the fair, souvenir collections necessarily reduce the event into a series of fragments, by including photographs, themselves highly subjective, of a few select locations. The nature of souvenirs, "is necessarily fragmentary...they offer a singular, fragmentary viewpoint that stands for the whole experience" (Ogata 76). By crystallizing the massive event into a few manageable sites, the souvenir determines what is important and what can be omitted, thus occupying a profoundly influential role in shaping the public understanding and collective memory of the fairs.

These mass-distributed official photographs reveal an intrinsic relationship between the creative construction of the fair and the creative construction of the souvenirs of the fair. In addition, these souvenir collections have significantly impacted architectural photography and touristic practices, thus making these materials in the Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections highly valuable insights into the creative role of communicating, organizing and controlling an idealized notion of architecture that extends beyond the fairs. The ways of seeing put forth through these photographic techniques have largely influenced patterns of tourism that continue to evolve, demonstrating the importance of these materials as part of the larger historiography of architourism today.

Bibliography

Materials Housed in KRMC, Cornell University Library:

Arnold, C.D. and H.D. Higinbotham, book, 1893, Official Views of the Columbian Exposition, Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Librar, Ithaca, NY.

Mayer, Frederick, Jose de Olivares and Marius Bar, photographic serial magazine, 1900, The Parisian Dream City; a Portfolio of Photographic Views of the World's Exposition at Paris, Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

Neurdien Brothers, Photograph album, Paris Exposition Universelle, 1889, Kroch Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

Secondary Sources:

Benjamin, Walter. "Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century," Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978.

Brown, Julie. Contesting Images: Photography and the World's Columbian Exposition. Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, 1994.

Champa, Kermit Swiler. "A Little Night Music: The Play of Color and Light." In Architecture of the Night, edited by Dietrich Neumann, 16-27. Munich: Prestel, 2002.

Felix, Fred. "A Camera in the World's Fair Grounds," American Amateur Photographer 4 (1892), 409-411.

Gilbert, James. "Fixing the Image: Photography at the World's Columbian Exposition." In Grand Illusions: Chicago's World's Fair of 1893, edited by Neil Harris, 100-132. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1993.

---. Whose Fair?: Experience, Memory, and the History of the Great St. Louis Exposition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Gotham, K. F., "Resisting Urban Spectacle: The 1984 Louisiana World Exposition and the Contradiction of Mega Events," Urban Studies 48, no. 1 (2010), 197-214.

Graff, Rebecca, "Being Toured While Digging Tourism: Excavating the Familiar at Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition," International Journal of Historical Archaeology 15 (2011), 222-235.

Hales, Peter. Constructing the Fair: Platinum Photographs by C.D. Arnold of the World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1993.

---. "Photography and the World's Columbian Exposition: 'A Case Study,'" Journal of Urban History 15, no. 3 (1989), 247-273.

Harris, Neil. "Memory and the White City." In Grand Illusions: Chicago's World's Fair of 1893, edited by Neil Harris, 3-32. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1993.

Jones, Ethel B. "New Estimates of Hours of Work Per Week and Hourly Earnings, 1900-1957," The Review of Economics and Statistics 45, no. 4 (November 1963), 374-385.

Lovell, Margareta, "Picturing 'A City for a Single Summer': Paintings of the World's Columbian Exposition," The Art Bulletin 78, no. 1 (March 1996), 40-55.

McCannell, Dean. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Neumann, Dietrich. "Architectural Illumination Before the Twentieth Century." In Architecture of the Night: The Illuminated Building, edited by Dietrich Neumann, 8-15. Munich: Prestel, 2002.

Ogata, Amy, "Viewing Souvenirs: Peepshows and the International Expositions," Journal of Design History 15, no. 2 (2002), 69-82.

Rydell, Robert, John Findling, and Kimberly D. Pelle. Fair America: World's Fairs in the United States. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000.

Rydell, Robert and Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Books of the Fairs: Materials about World's Fairs, 1834-1916, in the Smithsonian Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 1992.

Rydell, Robert. All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

---. "The Culture of Imperial Abundance: World's Fairs in the Making of American Culture." Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920. Ed. Simon J. Bronner. New York: Norton, 1989.

---. World of Fairs: the Century-of-Progress Expositions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Pertinent WWW Resources:

Wolfsonian institution: wolfsonian.org/

Library of Congress archives: http://www.loc.gov/index.html

"Doing the Pan," an individually compiled site of resources: http://panam1901.org/

For a digital copy of C.D. Arnold's souvenir publication, Official Views of the World's Columbian Exposition, please visit this online resource: http://openlibrary.org/books/OL6959661M/Official_views_of_the_World's_Columbian_Exposition

For a digital copy of C.D. Arnold's souvenir publication, Official Views of the Pan-American Exposition, please visit this online resource: http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1487168W/Official_views_of_Pan-American_exposition

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