From Manuscript to Print: the Evolution of the Medieval Book

11th Century
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This script demonstrates the evolution of Caroline minuscule in the direction of the Gothic form that was to dominate bookhands during the High Middle Ages (13th-16th centuries); thus it is sometimes called "Protogothic." In this transition, scribes began to separate words more clearly, replaced the ae-diphthong with the æ-ligature or the letter e with a cedilla (which stood for the letter a), kept the foot of the tall letter s on rather than below the line, wrote the letter d with a stem curved to the left rather than a vertical stem, and made more use of abbreviations.

Purchased in 1888 for A. D. White.

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Homiletic Miscellany, Fragment. Italy, late 11th or early 12th century.
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Introduction
the Sacred Word
Churchbooks
Private Prayer
Letterforms
Leather and Chains
Medieval Music
Schoolbooks
How the Classics Survived
Manuscripts in the Age of Print
Evolution of the Book
Appetite for Destruction
Manuscript Facsimiles
Cornell's Medieval Books
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