These illuminations were removed from choirbooks, as indicated by the
text on the back of the fragments. It is uncertain whether they were taken
from manuscripts that were mutilated in the process, or whether they were
salvaged from manuscripts that had been slated for recycling. Liturgical
texts were often scrapped when they were considered outmoded.
[top] Initial "S" from a Gradual. Germany
or Bohemia, fifteenth century. [bottom] Miniature: St. Peter and Assembled
Saints. Italy, early sixteenth century.