Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
India's first Prime Minister and a close collaborator and partner
of Gandhi in India's freedom struggle, Nehru came from an old privileged,
wealthy, and aristocratic family. When he was a young boy, European governesses
and tutors schooled him at home; later he went to Harrow and Trinity College,
Cambridge, where he studied Natural Sciences. He became involved in student
politics at the university, and rapidly plunged into the independence
movement upon returning to India.
Influenced by socialist ideology, secular in outlook, and favorable towards
western scientific progress, Nehru advocated modern industrialization,
working class democracy, and a strong centralized government to oversee
social reform. Nehru's positions contrasted sharply with Gandhi's promotion
of pre-industrial rural self-sufficiency, cottage industries, regional
crafts, and smaller, local units of self-governance.
Jawaharlal Nehru. The Discovery of India. Calcutta: Signet
Press, 1948. Signed by the author in three languagesEnglish,
Hindi, and Urduon January 14, 1949.
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