Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
India's first Prime Minister and a close collaborator and partner of Gandhi in India's freedom struggle, Nehru came from an old privileged, wealthy, and aristocratic family. When he was a young boy, European governesses and tutors schooled him at home; later he went to Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied Natural Sciences. He became involved in student politics at the university, and rapidly plunged into the independence movement upon returning to India.

Influenced by socialist ideology, secular in outlook, and favorable towards western scientific progress, Nehru advocated modern industrialization, working class democracy, and a strong centralized government to oversee social reform. Nehru's positions contrasted sharply with Gandhi's promotion of pre-industrial rural self-sufficiency, cottage industries, regional crafts, and smaller, local units of self-governance.

Jawaharlal Nehru. The Discovery of India. Calcutta: Signet Press, 1948. Signed by the author in three languages—English, Hindi, and Urdu—on January 14, 1949.

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