Painting & Everyday Life in 19th Century America Preliminary Exam II Professor Laura L. Meixner

IMAGE REVIEW -- Review Questions

(See also: Images viewed in lectures)

    How do these two paintings relate to the beginnings of genre imagery in America? What was Quidor's attitude toward history as opposed to folklore?

     

    The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane 
    Quidor, John (1801-1881) 
    1858 
    National Museum of American Art 
    purchase made possible in part by the Catherine Walden Myer Endowment,  
    the Julia D. Strong Endowment, and the Director's Discretionary Fund

     

    The Return of Rip Van Winkle 
    Quidor, John 
    1849 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Andrew W. Mellon Collection 

    Compare this image to Cole's "Garden" and "Expulsion" scenes, which we discussed in class. How does this work fit into the larger themes Cole addressed throughout his career? What were Cole's personal religious beliefs, and how do these manifest themselves in his work?

     

    The Pilgrim of the Cross at the End of His Journey 
    Cole, Thomas 
    1849 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Museum Purchase

    Analyze these paintings and explain them as representations of Cole's Hudson River School style.

     

    A View of the Mountain Pass Called the Notch of the White Mountains (Crawford Notch) 
    Cole, Thomas 
    1839 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Andrew W. Mellon Fund

     

    Sunrise in the Catskills 
    Cole, Thomas 
    1826 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art

    In what ways did Constable influence the younger Hudson River School painters, such as Asher B. Durand? What distinguishes Constable's romantic aesthetic from that of Turner? In what ways did Constable's influence contribute to the American departure from Cole's style?

     

    The White Horse 
    Constable, John 
    1849 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Washington, Widener Collection

    Discuss this image as a nationalist icon. In what ways does Cropsey use the Hudson River scene to promote exceptionalism?

     

    Autumn - On the Hudson River  
    Cropsey, Jasper Francis 
    1860 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of the Avalon Foundation

    You are visiting the National Gallery and come upon this painting. How can you confidently attribute it to Durand (on the basis of formal analysis)? How does it represent Durand's philosophy concerning nature?

     

    Forest in the Morning Light  
    Durand, Asher Brown 
    1855 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of Frederick Sturges, Jr.

    Explain the ways that Durand developed a Hudson River School aesthetic independent of Cole's example. What are the key points in Durand's aesthetic theory, and how did he communicate these to the American public? How did French Barbizon (Rousseau) and British romanticism (Constable)allow Durand to develop a new landscape aesthetic? How does this aesthetic manifest itself in this image?

     

    Woodland Glen  
    Durand, Asher Brown 
    1855 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Museum Purchase

    Compare this image to Heades we've discussed in class. What did South America signify to artists and their post-Civil War audiences? What cultural or socio-political events and attitudes contributed to the popularity of scenes such as this one?

     

    Cattleya Orchid and Three Brazilian Hummingbirds  
    Heade, Martin Johnson 
    1871 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation 

     

    Rio de Janeiro Bay  
    Heade, Martin Johnson 
    1864 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of the Avalon Foundation

    Explain Leo Marx's "machine in the garden" theory. How did this image challenge America's pastoral identity? How does Inness depart from precedents established by Cropsey and others?What attitudes do you think Inness himself held toward industrialization? Where does this image fit (in terms of attitude) relative to the popular illustrations of railway scenes we've looked at in class?

     

    The Lackawanna Valley  
    Inness, George 
    1856 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of Mrs. Huttleston Rogers 

    Explain the ways in which these paintings represent another aspect of Inness's style, distinct from "Lackawanna Valley." What is Inness saying here about the nature of American national (ist) icons? How might you contrast Inness and Church in their portrayals of Niagara? What were the socio-political, cultural factors influencing their approaches?

     

    Niagara  
    Inness, George 
    1889 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Gift of William T. Evans 

     

    Niagara Falls  
    Inness, George 
    1885 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Gift of John Gellatly 

    In what ways are these paintings a paradigm of the luminist school? What were the poetic underpinnings of Kensett's style? How does the luminist movement speak to a nation engaged in Civil War?

     

    Beacon Rock, Newport Harbor  
    Kensett, John Frederick 
    1857 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of Frederick Sturges, Jr.

     

    Along the Hudson  
    Kensett, John Frederick, (1816-1872) 
    1852 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Bequest of Helen Huntington Hull 

     

    Landing at Sabbath Day Point  
    Kensett, John Frederick 
    1853 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of Mrs. Sigourney Thayer 

     

    Beach at Beverly  
    Kensett, John Frederick 
    1869 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of Frederick Sturges, Jr. 

    Compare this image to "Heart of the Andes" and "Cotopaxi." What did the South American landscape represent to Church? How did Church represent the scientifc theories of his day? How might you compare/contrast his programme to Bierstadt's paintings of the American West?

     

    Morning in the Tropics  
    Church, Frederic Edwin 
    1877 
    National Gallery of Art 
    Gift of the Avalon Foundation 

    Consider these works with a view to our readings by Trachtenberg, Truettner, and Dixon. In what ways does Moran illustrate Manifest Destiny, F.J.Turner's view of the West as democratic space? What were the key controversies raised by the National Museum of American Art (Truettner) exhibition?

     

    The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone 
    Moran, Thomas 
    1901 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Gift of George D. Pratt 

     

    Cliffs of the Upper Colorado River, Wyoming Territory  
    Moran, Thomas, (1837 England-1926 USA) 
    1882 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Bequest of Henry Ward Ranger through the National Academy of Design 

     

     

    Black Canyon, Colorado River,  
    from Camp 8, Looking above  
    O'Sullivan, Timothy 
    1871 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment 

     

    Canyon de Chelle: Walls of the Grand Canyon about 1200 ft.  
    O'Sullivan, Timothy 
    1873 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment 

    Compare these images to Bierstadt's paintings, considering especially the compositional similarities. What was the market for photographs such as these? How did they contribute to the myth of the West?

     

    Quarters of Men in Fort Sedgwick, known as Fort Hell  
    O'Sullivan, Timothy 
    1865 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment 

     

    Shoshone Falls, Snake River, Idaho Territory  
    O'Sullivan, Timothy 
    1874 
    National Museum of American Art 
    Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment 

     

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