Teachers Union of the City of New York. Records,
1921-1942

Collection Number: 5445

Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives
Cornell University Library

Contact Information:
Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives
Martin P. Catherwood Library
227 Ives Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853
(607) 255-3183
kheel_center@cornell.edu
http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/kheel
Compiled by:
Kheel Center staff
EAD encoding:
Casey S. Westerman, 2005

© 2005 Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library


DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY

Title:
Teachers Union of the City of New York. Records, 1921-1942
Collection Number:
5445
Creator:
Teachers' Union of the City of New York
Quantity:
4.5 linear ft.
Forms of Material:
Resolutions, questionnaires, case files, press releases, publications.
Repository:
Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University.
Abstract:
Records of the Teachers' Union of the City of New York, including files on academic freedom.
Language:
Collection material in English


ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY

The Teacher's Union, Local 5, was organized in 1916 as an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers, (A.F. of L.) by Henry R. Linville, Abraham Lefkowitz and a few other pioneering teachers in New York City.
Perhaps the most significant contribution of the T.U. during those early years was its fight on behalf of civil liberties, an area in which it would later become a formidable combatant. Its principal target was the repeal of the Lusk laws, statutes which allowed for the revocation of a teacher's license "if he is not of good moral character -- or if by act or utterance he shows that he will not support the constitution of the State or of the United States of America."
During the 1920's the T.U. continued its fight for increased salaries commensurate with the higher cost of living, reduced classroom size, tenure for teachers, improvements in the pension system, and increased state aid education. Unfortunately, the results rarely met the organization's expectations.
About 1925, organized political factions began appearing within the T.U.'s ranks. After 1929, two such groups were dominant in their opposition to the majority organization: the "Rank and File" group which represented the official Communist Party of America, and the "Progressive" group which represented a faction within the Communist movement opposed to the official party.
The leadership of Local 5 soon realized that it was helpless in the factional battle that ensued because of an overly liberal constitution, which had been designed to insure the rights of all minority groups whatever their objectives. In an attempt to rid its house of revolutionary elements, on October 27, 1932, at a large membership meeting, a Committee of Five was selected to try five members of the Rank and File group and one member of the Progressive group on the charge of disruptive conduct.
John Dewey, chairman, delivered the unanimous report of the Committee on April 29, 1933 before a Membership meeting of approximately 800. As was anticipated, the Committee reported that the primary cause of the intolerable strike within the Teachers' Union was due to the existence and activity of the two Communist organized factions. With the support of both the Executive Board and the Delegate Assembly, the local petitioned the national office to investigate the local and sought to have the local's old charter revoked so that a new local might be formed without the Communist element.
In May 1935, the national office sent an investigating committee composed of its president, secretary-treasurer and its Washington representative. The Committee's finding was that the local union "was 'helpless' and 'completely at the mercy of a small obstructionist group in the local', and that the obstructionist's group was itself 'not free to formulate its own policies but was subject to a political force which is itself fundamentally opposed to basic principles for which the union attends.'"
Despite this report of the investigating committee, a request by the administration of the Teachers Union to reorganize the local was turned down at the A.F.T. National Convention in August 1935 by a vote of 100 to 79. As a result, October 1, 1935, Henry R. Linville and Abraham Lefkowitz led eight hundred dissatisfied members out of the Teachers Union and into the newly formed independent Teachers Guild. Also among the seceding members were all the officers (with the exception of one) and a majority of the Executive Board.
In 1936, the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor, as a result of testimony taken before a sub-committee in Washington, recommended to the American Federation of Teachers that it revoke the charter issued to Teachers Union Local 5. The A.F.T., however, did not see fit to abide by this recommendation.
On March 15, 1938 the Greater New York Central Trades and Labor Council suspended the Teachers Union from membership in its organization. Also in March, Teachers Union, Local 5 was expelled from the Joint Committee of Teachers Organizations of New York City.
Again in 1941, the subject of Local 5's charter revocation came up before the American Federation of teachers. However, this time the Executive Council recommended (with one dissenting vote) revocation and their action was overwhelmingly endorsed by the delegates at the Conventions in August 1941, at Detroit. After having its charter revoked, the Teachers Unions continued as Local 555 of the United Public Workers of the Congress of Industrial Organizations. The C.I.O. in February 1950 expelled the United Public Workers due to its alleged Communist domination. The Teachers Union, however, continued its association with the U.P.W. until it withdrew in February 1952.
Finally, in 1964, at the suggestion of Rose Russell, one of the T.U.'s guiding lights, the annual convention dissolved the T.U. with the recommendation that its members unite with the other forces in the New York City Teacher's Movement. On June 20, prior to the 1941 Convention, the Teachers Guild accepted the offer of a charter and was reunited with the American Federation of Teachers. Although it retained its name of the Teachers Guild, it was now designated Local 2, AFT.
The Teachers Guild during this period increased in both size and strength. In March, 1960, the Teachers Guild merged with the CATU (Committee of Action Through Unity) to form the United Federation of Teachers. Under the auspices of the New York City Labor Department and empowered by the Board of Education, a representation election was scheduled and held on December 15, 1961. The results were overwhelmingly in favor of the U.F.T. (Local 2, AFT) and so the following August the Board of Education and the U.F.T. entered into their first collective bargaining relationship.

COLLECTION DESCRIPTION

Records of the Teachers' Union of the City of New York, including files on academic freedom.

SUBJECTS

Names:
Teachers' Union of the City of New York
American Federation of Teachers. Local 5 (New York, N.Y.)

Subjects:
Teachers' unions -- New York (State) -- New York.
Teachers' -- New York (State) -- New York.
Labor unions and communism -- New York (State) -- New York.
Civil rights -- New York (State) -- New York.

Form and Genre Terms:
Records


INFORMATION FOR USERS

Access Restrictions:
Access to the collections in the Kheel Center is restricted. Please contact a reference archivist for access to these materials.
Restrictions on Use:
In order to cite or quote from any correspondence, case files, or reports on individual teachers in a way which will identify such individuals by name, you will have to obtain the written permission of the individual who is the subject of such correspondence, case files or reports during said individual's lifetime. No such permission is required in quoting previously available court briefs or decisions.
Cite As:
Teachers Union of the City of New York. Records, 1921-1942. 5445. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University.

RELATED MATERIAL

5015. Teachers' Union of the City of New York records, 1916-1964.
5279. New York Teachers Guild Records, 1923-1957.
5927. Teachers Union of the City of New York. Additional Records.

COLLECTION ARRANGEMENT

Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject.

CONTAINER LIST

Description
Container
Teachers Union of the City of New York. Records, 1921-1942.
Academic Freedom, 1921-1938
Box 1 Folder 1-4
Academic Freedom Resolution, 1938-39
Box 1 Folder 5-7
Academic Freedom Case, 1935
Box 1 Folder 8
Academic Freedom Democracy in Schools - Questionnaire, 1938
Box 1 Folder 9-11
Academic Freedom The Signpost, etc.
Box 1 Folder 12-13
Academic Freedom Committee, 1930's
Box 2 Folder 1
Academic Freedom Committee, American Civil Liberties Union, 1920-35
Box 2 Folder 2-3
Academic Freedom Committee, Anti-Hearst Campaign, 1935-37
Box 2 Folder 4-5
Academic Freedom Committee, Anti-War Symposium, 1940
Box 2 Folder 6
Academic Freedom Committee, Anti-War Telegrams, 1940-41
Box 2 Folder 7
Academic Freedom Committee, Ives Loyalty Oath, 1930--36
Box 2 Folder 8-13
Academic Freedom Committee, Program for Democracy, 1938-39
Box 2 Folder 14
Academic Freedom Committee, Dr. Bertrand Russell, 1940
Box 2 Folder 15
Child Resignation - Counts, 1939
Box 3 Folder 1
Convention-American Federation of Teachers, 1939
Box 3 Folder 2-10
Dies Committee, 1939-40
Box 3 Folder 11
Case file, 1926-29
Box 4 Folder 1
Case file, 1922-26
Box 4 Folder 2
Labor Defense Council, 1923
Box 4 Folder 3
Legal Aid and Grievance, 1934-38
Box 4 Folder 4
Legal Suits vs Board of Education, 1936-37
Box 4 Folder 5
Lusk Laws, 1920-24
Box 4 Folder 6-11
Case file, 1936
Box 5 Folder 1-5
Minutes of Teachers Union, 1932
Box 5 Folder 6
Case files, 1934
Box 5 Folder 7
Monroe High School - Case, 1933-34
Box 5 Folder 8
Case file, 1940
Box 5 Folder 9
Case file, 1940-42
Box 6 Folder 1-11
Referendum on War Resolutions, 1940
Box 7 Folder 1
Released Time-Religious Instruction, 1923-40
Box 7 Folder 2
Releases, 1936-41
Box 7 Folder 3
Revocation
Box 7 Folder 4-12
Revocation - AFT vs Local 5
Box 7 Folder 13
Special Committee on Left-Wing Activities, 1932
Box 8 Folder 1
Statement of Police, 1940
Box 8 Folder 2
Teachers League for Academic Freedom, 1934
Box 8 Folder 3-4
Witch Hunting Legislative Committee, 1941
Box 8 Folder 5
Zysman, Dale - Case, 1941-42
Box 8 Folder 6-7
Miscellaneous
Box 9